Freudian Perspective Guidelines


Biography of Sigmund freud

  • Sigmund Frued was an Austrain neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis.
  • Sigmund Frued was born in Freiberg, which is known as the Czech Republic on May 6 , 1856.
  • Frued developed psychoanalysis, a method throughout which an analyst unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient.

Defense Mechanism

  • Denial - is the refusal to accept reality or fact, acting as if a painful event, thought or feeling did not exist. For instance, a person who is a functioning alcoholic will often simply deny they have a drinking problem, pointing to how well they function in their job and relationships.
  • Regression- is the reversion to an earlier stage of development in the face of unacceptable thoughts or impulses. For an example an adolescent who is overwhelmed with fear, anger and growing sexual impulses might become clingy and start exhibiting earlier childhood behaviors he has long since overcome, such as bedwetting.
  • Acting Out- is performing an extreme behavior in order to express thoughts or feelings the person feels incapable of otherwise expressing. Instead of saying, “I’m angry with you,” a person who acts out may instead throw a book at the person, or punch a hole through a wall. For instance, a child’s temper tantrum is a form of acting out when he or she doesn’t get his or her way with a parent.
  • Dissociation- is when a person loses track of time and/or person, and instead finds another representation of their self in order to continue in the moment.
  • Compartmentalization- is a lesser form of dissociation, wherein parts of oneself are separated from awareness of other parts and behaving as if one had separate sets of values. An example might be an honest person who cheats on their income tax return and keeps their two value systems distinct and un-integrated while remaining unconscious of the cognitive dissonance.
  • Projection- is the misattribution of a person’s undesired thoughts, feelings or impulses onto another person who does not have those thoughts, feelings or impulses. For example, a spouse may be angry at their significant other for not listening, when in fact it is the angry spouse who does not listen.
  • Reaction Formation - is the converting of unwanted or dangerous thoughts, feelings or impulses into their opposites. For instance, a woman who is very angry with her boss and would like to quit her job may instead be overly kind and generous toward her boss and express a desire to keep working there forever.

Psychosexual development


  • ORAL (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, chewing
  • ANAL (18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination
  • PHALLIC (3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals, incestuous sexual feelings
  • LATENCY (6 to puberty) Dormant sexual feelings
  • GENITAL (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interest


  • The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. It is the decision making component of personality. Ideally the ego works by reason whereas the id is chaotic and totally unreasonable.
  • The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others.
  • The id is the primitive and instinctive component of personality. It consists of all the inherited components of personality, including the sex (life) instinct – Eros and the aggressive instinct - Thanatos.