War of 1812

Cause #1 - Impressment

Britain and France went to war again in 1803. America declared neutrality and wanted to trade with both. Britain again captured ships and kidnapped sailors. In the Chesapeake affair: In 1807, a British warship tried to capture the Chesapeake, and American warship. The Chesapeake resisted and the British ship fired upon it and kidnapped sailors. Many Americans were furious and called for war.

Cause #2 - Economic Problems: Embargo of 1807

Jefferson proposed an embargo to avoid war. American stopped al trade with Europe. The good result is American ships were kept safe and avoided the war. The bad result is without European trade, the American economy suffered. Election of 1808: James Madison, a democratic-republican was elected president. The Non-Intercourse Act restored trade with all of Europe except Britain and France. The American economy still suffered and many Americans wanted war.

Cause #3 - "War Hawks" Elected

War hawks wanted war against Britain. In 1810, new "War Hawk" congressmen from the South and West were elected. The southern were angered because the Britain had damaged their trade with Europe. The western were angered because they blame Britain for Indian attacks on frontier. Henry Clay later proposed a new economic system for America. Clay also developed many compromises to prevent civil war. John C. Calhoun is a future vice president under Andrew Jackson.

Cause #4 - Native American attacks

Americans violated the Treaty of Greenville and moved into Indian land. British troops were still in western forts and armed Indians to attack Americans. Tecumseh began recruiting and uniting tribes to protect their lands. Battle of Tippecanoe, William Henry Harrison led troops against Indians, crushing Tecumseh's movement. Tecumseh fled to British and owned Canada confirming that Britain was aiding Indians.

Battle of Baltimore

The British navy tried to attack Baltimore but were stopped at Fort Mchenry. Francis Scott Key was inspired by the battle to write what became the "Star-Spangled Banner," which became the national anthem. British ships retreated and the Chesapeake area was saved.

Battle of Detroit

On July 11th, 1812, 2,500 American troops under General Hull reached the Detroit river and camped at fort Detroit. Canadian side of the river were 100 British regulars, 300 militia and 150 indians led by Tecumseh. Hull crossed the Detroit and made his headquarters in the Canadian farmhouse.

1st effect of the War - On the Canadian Border

British and American navies fought battles on the Great Lakes. Americans burned the city of York, now Toronto. Britain tried to invade New York and New England, where Federalist were, but failed. America tried to invade Canada at three locations, but failed. Fighting on the border was a stalemate.

2nd effect of the War- Around the Chesapeake Bay

The British navy moved to the Chesapeake Bay and marched to Washington, D.C. Members of the federal government, including Madison, fled as the British attacked. The capital building and white house were burned.

3rd effect of the War - New Orleans

Britain wanted to capture New Orleans and the Mississippi River to cut off trade. Battle of New Orleans led by Andrew Jackson, American troops beat the British. This battle make Jackson a national hero and inspired nationalism (patriotism) throughout the country.

4th effect of the War - Federalist Opposition

Many Federalist opposed fighting Britain. Hartford convection, federalists met to discuss their opposition to the war. Federalists looked unpatriotic when the war ended.