War of 1812
Cause #1 - Impressment
Britain and France went to war again in 1803. America declared neutrality and wanted to trade with both. Britain again captured ships and kidnapped sailors. In the Chesapeake affair: In 1807, a British warship tried to capture the Chesapeake, and American warship. The Chesapeake resisted and the British ship fired upon it and kidnapped sailors. Many Americans were furious and called for war.
Cause #2 - Economic Problems: Embargo of 1807
Jefferson proposed an embargo to avoid war. American stopped al trade with Europe. The good result is American ships were kept safe and avoided the war. The bad result is without European trade, the American economy suffered. Election of 1808: James Madison, a democratic-republican was elected president. The Non-Intercourse Act restored trade with all of Europe except Britain and France. The American economy still suffered and many Americans wanted war.
Cause #3 - "War Hawks" Elected
War hawks wanted war against Britain. In 1810, new "War Hawk" congressmen from the South and West were elected. The southern were angered because the Britain had damaged their trade with Europe. The western were angered because they blame Britain for Indian attacks on frontier. Henry Clay later proposed a new economic system for America. Clay also developed many compromises to prevent civil war. John C. Calhoun is a future vice president under Andrew Jackson.
Cause #4 - Native American attacks
Americans violated the Treaty of Greenville and moved into Indian land. British troops were still in western forts and armed Indians to attack Americans. Tecumseh began recruiting and uniting tribes to protect their lands. Battle of Tippecanoe, William Henry Harrison led troops against Indians, crushing Tecumseh's movement. Tecumseh fled to British and owned Canada confirming that Britain was aiding Indians.
Battle of Detroit
On July 11th, 1812, 2,500 American troops under General Hull reached the Detroit river and camped at fort Detroit. Canadian side of the river were 100 British regulars, 300 militia and 150 indians led by Tecumseh. Hull crossed the Detroit and made his headquarters in the Canadian farmhouse.
1st effect of the War - On the Canadian Border
British and American navies fought battles on the Great Lakes. Americans burned the city of York, now Toronto. Britain tried to invade New York and New England, where Federalist were, but failed. America tried to invade Canada at three locations, but failed. Fighting on the border was a stalemate.