Native Tribes

Anasazi, Adena, Hopewell, Mississippisns


The Anasazi tribe built dams, ditches, and canals to capture rain from the tops of mesa to keep for gardens on the canyon floor. Their houses were made out of adobe and stone. The homes were apartment-like structures that were built on the walls of cliffs or large plazas. The heart of the civilization in Chaco Canyon was Pueblo Bonito, Where there were more than 1000 people living. The roads were built from Pueblo Bonito as trading networks. Craftsmen made turquoise jewelry, wove baskets, and made pottery for the trading. This heavily influenced art and architecture of later groups such as the Hopi and the Zuni, which are two of the largest Pueblo groups today!


The Adena A.K.A the Eastern Woodlands people, lived in the Ohio valley region in 700BC. They grew squash, sunflowers, gourds, and barley. Produces exquisite copper jewelry and fine pottery. They made elaborate burial mounds, that were usually made out of log structures, covered by piles of earth.


The Hopewell tribe arrived in the Ohio valley in 300BC. They also built mounds, some were up to 40 feet high, and 100 feet wide! Adena and Hopewell were both referred to as "Mound Builders"


The Mississippians arrived to the Mississippi valley by 800BC. They had plants that they used for many foods. Maize and beans helped increase their population. The increase in population caused the need for more land. When they got more land, it resulted in numerous cities with up to 10,000 people. The largest city was Cahokia, which was located near president-day East St. Louis) In the center city of Cahokia's, was a massive mound which was apro. 100 feet high, and with a base of more than 15 acres. That's larger that the Great Pyramid in Egypt! Around the massive mound were 129 smaller mounds.