Basic Chemistry

Review for mid-terms


What is an element? - Substance that can't be broken into a simpler chemical substances

Periodic Table - a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure

Parts of an atom

Atom-smallest part of the element that has characteristics of that element

  • Nucleus - the center of an atom
  • Proton- Positive charge particle (p+)
  • Neutron - neutral particle
  • Electron cloud - Area around the nucleolus
  • Electron - Negative charge particle (e-)

Drawing Atoms

How to draw an atom

Ionic bonds

How to draw an ionic bond

Acids and Bases

pH: Measure of how acidic or basic a solution is

  • A scale with values ranging from 0 to 14 is used to measure pH

Acid: Substance with a pH below 7. Forms hydrogen ions (H+) in water

Neutral: pH is 7

Base: Substance with a pH above 7. Forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water

Bohr Model

How to draw a covalent bond