Chapter 17, Section 2

Native Americans Struggle to survive

People of the Plains

In 1865, some 360,000 Natives lived in the West, mainly in the plains. They survived by gathering wild foods, hunting, and fishing. Some Natives raised crops, and when foreigners came it changed there life.They traded with the French and with the British for guns because the guns helped them hunt. Travios: small sleds, Tepees: cone shaped tents made of buffalo skins. Natives found buffalo really good use of source the meet was high in protein, the horns and bones could be made in to tools, and the tendons could be made in to thread. Hunting for the natives its what helped them survive for so long. Women managed the villages they did everything while the men were out hunting.

Broken Treaties

US treaties promised to safe Native land but as railroads and mines were being made they pushed west and broke the treaties. A lot of Natives went to Fort Laramie to talk to the US officials. The Officials wanted them to stop following he buffalo and if the natives settle permanently and then they would protect there land. In the 1860's forced Natives to give up on pikes peak warriors unleashed an attack on homes and supply's. Colonel John Chivington with 700 volunteers attacked a band of Natives and creek in eastern Colorado. The Natives raised a white flag for peace but they still attacked more then 100 men, women, children died that day. That's started a war between the Natives and soldiers the Native Americans started to shrink in people because people wou7ld use the buffalo to feed the crew in mines or rail road work.

Last Stand for Custer and the sioux

New treaty's in the 1860 thought that would settle the war they wanted the to settle and farm. Reservations: is land set aside for Native Americans to live on. Natives got land in Oklahoma but it was horrible because the soil was horrible. Natives got land in the black hills of Dakotas but it brought gold miners there but it stopped them because of a wild horse attack which kept whites out. I June of 1876 Colonel George Armstrong Custer entered the little Bighorn Valley in Montana Territory. Although he was out numbered he ordered an attack on the Cheyenne's. Custer and his men lost and all died.

The Failure of Reform

Reformers criticized the Government for its harsh treatment on the Native Americans. Criticism grew more as Natives were forced in reservations. The Dawes Act was passed in 1887 it tried to stop Natives from wandering and convert them into farmers. Native Americans reached received 160 acres of land to farm they also wanted to setup schools for the Native Americans children to be like American children. The act failed only few Native Americans took into farming most of them sold there land cheaply to dishonest the Americans. Because of that Natives had to give up in trading and they became really poor because they couldn't tried with other Americans.