Review Booklet (1)

Created By: Jeanette Gu

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George Washington

Washington was the general of the Continental Army and he helped win the last battle of the war (The Battle of Yorktown). When he was elected president of the United States after the Revolutionary War, some precedents he set were the standard for how long a president should serve, the court system, for how the nation should relate to other nations, and he also created the departments in the executive branch.


Hint: Washington = Wash to White = White Hair

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Portrait: George Washington

Mercantilism

-an economic theory that a nation's power depends on its ability to increase wealth by receiving precious metals


Hint: Mercantilism = Merchant Metals = wealth for a nation

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Comic: Relationship between Colonies and England

Navigation Acts

A series of laws passed by England in the 1650s which forced colonists to sell materials to England no matter what and and had bought goods taxed by England. The trade ships had to be either English or colonial and the crews on the ships had to be English too.


Hint: Navigation = trade = requirements

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Depiction of Trade

Sugar Act

1764-The Sugar Act lowered the tax on the molasses the colonists imported but also allowed officers to seize goods from accused smugglers without going to court. This angered the colonists who proclaimed this violated their rights and was a factor in the fiery storm of the American Revolution.


Hint: Sugar = molasses = seems too sweet (downside of violating rights)

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Original Printing of the 1764 Sugar Act

Stamp Act

1765- law that taxed almost all printed goods, passed by Parliament


Hint; everything paper needs a stamp, hence the 'Stamp' Act

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Official Stamps to signify Tax

Continental Congress

Actions took by the Continental Congress were...

-authorizing printing of money and set up post office

-formed committee to handle relations with the Natives and foreign countries


Actions took in relation to the American Revolution...

-created Continental Army and chose George Washington as Command

-sent Olive Branch Petition to King George III


Hint: Political Body (just like modern society) for challenging Brit control

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Depiction of Continental Congress Meeting

New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies

New England: included Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island

-Separatists were first to settle in Plymouth (Pilgrims)

-Puritans (Massachusetts Bay Company) established colony North of Plymouth

-Thomas Hooker founded Hartford in the Connecticut River Valley

-John Wheelwright (dissident) led to found Exeter in New Hampshire

-relied heavily on fishing and ship related economy (only subsistence farming)

-Puritans and Separatists were seeking religious freedom


Middle: included Delaware, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey

-were motivated to settlement by religious freedoms and economic reasons

-William Penn founded Pennsylvania

-the bulk of the middle colonies' revenue was supported by the fertile soil and land that provided crops, timber, furs, coal, and iron ore


Southern: included Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia

-economy almost completely supported by cash crops/farming

-settled for good-quality materials, moist climate that was suited for crops, for religious freedom, for purpose of getting away from the king

-John Smith helped the colonies survive starvation by encouraging farming orders that all must work or face starvation.


Hint: New: North, Middle = Middle, Southern = in the south

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13 American Colonies in 1775

Mercenaries

-hired soldiers

-American Revolution: were employed by Britain from Germany to fight against the rebelling colonies


-mercenaries = armies

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Hessians During the American Revolution

Loyalists

-American colonist who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

-EX: William Franklin was was a Loyalist who had served as a royal governor of New Jersey


Hint: LOYAL to England

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Party of Loyalists

Patriots

-American colonist who favored American independence

-EX: George Washington who was the general of the Continental Army


Hint: patriotic = believed in rights and country's liberty

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Depiction of Marching Patriots

Native Americans

-sided with the French and helped them during the French and Indian War against Britain due to ongoing friendships and trade


Hint: Native to America

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Members of a Native Tribe

Paul Revere

-member of Sons of Liberty (Patriot)

-rode to Lexington from Concord in order to warn the others that the British were advancing


Hint: The Famous Midnight Ride

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The Famed Midnight Ride

Separatists

-people in England who disagreed with Anglican beliefs and sought to set up their own churches


Hint: wanted to separate from England

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Travelers of the Mayflower

Pacifists

-group of people who supported peace between peoples


Hints: pacify = satisfying peace

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Pacifists protesting movement against Cuba

Bunker Hill

-June 16, 1775: militia gathered around Boston (which was being controlled by the British) and set up camp on Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill

-June 17, 1775: British charged Patriots and Patriots opened fire

-British victory yet the Brits realized this revolution was not going to be a quick easy fight


Hint: Bunker = Battle

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Battle at Bunker Hill in Progress

Boston Massacre

-a fight breaking out between Bostonians and British soldiers

-was product of anger because colonists were unhappy about Brits being there

-because result was death of five colonists, colonists' anger grew


Hint: Massacre of Colonists in Boston

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Depiction of the Boston Massacre

Proclamation of 1763

-Declaration by King George that the colonists were not to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains

-kept colonists on the coast and good relations with the Native Americans


Hint: NO GO APPS

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Proclamation by the King Representation

King George

-King of Britain at the time of the American Revolution who comissioned many of the acts and proclamations that led to the American Revolution


Hint: King

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Portrait of King George

Thomas Paine

-man who published a series of articles called "Common Sense" which urged the colonists to use their common sense to ditch Britain's rule and the ordinances imposed on the colonies


Hint: Civics from last year: Common Sense

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Thomas Paine and his Accomplishments

Boston Tea Party

-event where Patriots stole onto a East Indian Tea Company ship and dumped all of the crates of tea into the Boston Harbor


Hint: Tea Harbor, Boston

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Artist's Rendering of the Boston Tea Party

The Mayflower Compact

-document signed by Pilgrims of the Mayflower

-document set up an organized, detailed gov.


Hint: Mayflower Compact = Pilgrims' laws/requirements

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Artist's Rendering of the Mayflower Compact Signing

The French and Indian War

-war between France and Britain for control of North American lands

-Britain wanted control of the Ohio River Valley that had been controlled by the French up till then (had valuable trade posts)

-Britain prevailed over French and France and Spain's claim on North America disappeared

-start of Britain's reign over North America


Hint: France and Natives against Britain

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War in Motion

Olive Branch Petition

-petition colonists sent to King George asking him to respect colonists' rights

-was rejected and king prepared for war


Hint: Olive Branch = Peace

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Olive Branch Petition Pic

Shays' Rebellion

-rebellion of farmers led by Daniel Shays

-were treated harshly because they were unable to pay taxes for land, courts took land and locked them up

-gov realized that the Articles of Confederation were faulty because of this event


Hint: Daniel Shays = farmer

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Shays' Rebellion Depiction

Articles of Confederation

-Weaknesses: Couldn't regulate trade, force citizens to join army, or impose taxes


Hint: was not strong

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Articles of Confederation in Print

Constitutional Convention

Conflict: big and small state representation in government

Resolution: Three Fifths Compromise

Conflict: Too much power in the Federal Government

Resolution: Three Branches, Checks and Balances


-Participants: George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Edmund Randolph (VA Plan)


Hint: Meeting for Constitution

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Depiction of Constitutional Convention

Jamestown

-May 14th, 1607: Virginia Company settlers land on Jamestown and establish an English colony


Hint: Virginia Company = Jamestown

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Depiction of Jamestown Colony

John Locke

-philoshopher who promotes natural rights, all people should have natural rights


Hint: Civics

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Portrait of John Locke

Federalists

-people who supported the Constitution

-EX: Thomas Paine


Hint: Federal gov. should have more power

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Examples of Federalists

Slave Codes

-set of rules that control enslaved people


Hint: code for slaves

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Depiction of Slave Codes

Anti-Federalists

-people against a strong central government who don't support the Constitution


Hint: anti-federal government

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Examples of Anti-Federalists

Intolerable Acts

-Coercive Acts, nicknamed to Intolerable Acts by colonists

-series of laws that punished colonists for the event of the Boston Tea Party


-Hint: to coerce colonists to behave, intolerable for colonists

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Spiteful Image against Intolerable Acts

William Penn

-founded Province of Pennsylvania

-was a Quaker


Hint: Penn = Pennsylvania

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Portrait of William Penn

Writ of Assistance

-document that allowed British to search colonists thoroughly for smuggled goods

-also known as the Sugar Act


Hint: to assist Britain in searches

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Depiction of Writ of Assistance

Yorktown

-took place from September 28th to October 29th, 1781 in Yorktown

-Continental Army prevailed over the British

-significance was that it was the last battle that ultimately led to the American victory in the revolution


Hint: Battle at Yorktown (my group)

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Battle at Yorktown in Motion

Cause and Effect of the Revolutionary War

Advantages of Patriots: fighting for freedom, familiar with land, close to home

Disadvantages of Patriots: no official training, barely any supplies, no formal army


Advantages of British: world's greatest army, had funds, well-trained

Disadvantages of British: far from home, had mercenaries


Hint: Classwork

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Depiction of Moment during Revolutionary War