Infectious Diseases

Stephanie Depaz

Standards

8.L.1.1 Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.




8.L.1.2 Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.

What is microbiology ?

Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms.

Virus

Virus's are non-living pathogens that can change/mutate.

Invades healthy cells and uses host cells to make more copies of themselves.

Can be prevented with a vaccine.

Transmissions can be by human contact, water, or an insect.

Cannot survive by themselves.

Generally harmful to humans.

Bacteria

Microscopic.

Single-celled.

Prokaryote microorganisms that live freely in soil, water, or inside living things.

- Live in a variety of places; with or without oxygen and in extreme (hot or cold) conditions.

Can reproduce rapidly.

Antibiotics are used to inhibit their growth.

Antibiotics resistances can occur if it survives an antibiotic treatment.

During normal growth, some produce toxins.

Fungi

Multi cellular.

Both beneficial and harmful to humans.

Can live as parasites on a host.

Harmful fungi are those which cause an infection or are harmful to eat.

Diverse group of eukaryotic organisms.

Live by decomposing the organic material in which they grow.

Ex: Mold, mushrooms and mildew.

Parasites

Organisms that lives in or on another organism, called a host, taking nutrients and often harming it in the process.

Outbreaks, Epidemic, Pandemic

Outbreak: Occurrence of a disease greater than otherwise would be expected at a particular time and place.

-Differences An outbreak is smaller.

-Similarities: Both are in specific places and not spread out.

Epidemic: An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area of a specific country or region.

-Differences: Epidemic is in a specific area; pandemic is spread out all over the world.

-Similarities: Both affects a bigger group.

Pandemic: An epidemic that spreads over a very large area or throughout the entire world.

Vocabulary

Outbreak- Occurrence of a disease greater than would otherwise be expected at a particular time and place.

Epidemic- An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area of a specific country or region.

Pandemic- An epidemic that spreads over a very large area or throughout the world.

Vector- An organism typically an insect that transmits disease.

Pathogen- A virus, bacteria, fungi, parasite, or protozoa that can cause illness and infection.

Protozoa- Diverse organism that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi.

Virus- A non-living pathogen that can change mutate. It infects a host cell and replicates to cause illness an disease.

Bacteria- Single-celled prokaryotes that can cause disease. Multiply rapidly and can form colonies.

Parasite- An organism that lives in or on another organism, called a host, taking nutrients and often harming it in the process.

Fungi- A single-celled or multi-cellular organism that can decompose or absorb organic matter.

Host Cell- A cell the virus invades, takes over, and makes copies of itself.

Quarantine- A time or place of isolation in which people or animals that have been exposed to the infectious or contagious disease are placed.