Tundra

By Stefan Russell

Climate of a Tundra

The average winter temperature is -34° C (-30° F), but the average summer temperature is 3-12° C (37-54° F). Yearly precipitation, including melting snow, is 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 inches). Seasons do change in a tundra but not much changes, it is still very cold and small plants begin to grow back in the summertime.

Plant Life

The plants adapt by growing short and close to the ground to avoid high winds. Hairy stems also keep plants warm in the tundra. The Tundra has little plant life within this biome. Some common plants include the Bearberry, Arctic Moss, Caribou Moss, Diamond Leaf Willow, and Labrador Tea. This plant also has a hairy stem to keep warm. No animal eats the Labrador Tea. Just like the rest of the plants it has a hairy stem and stays close to the ground to keep as warm as possible. Animals and people eat this willow because it has a lot of vitamin C, vitamin A, and Calcium. This plant is not as populated as the others because so many people and animals eat this.

Animals

Animals that live in the tundra have special adaptations that allow them to survive the
extreme temperatures and conditions that are in a tundra. The Arctic Fox has short ears
and a short, round body with a thick coat to protect it from the freezing temperatures.

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2 Examples of Cooperation and Competition

Competition- The fox and the lynx both compete for food as in squirrels and mice. Another example is the weasel and the fox both compete for mice and squirrels according to the food web.
Cooperation- The small spikes on the stems of plants help protect it from getting eaten by much bigger animals. Another one is when elk stay in packs they are not hunted because one lone wolf cannot take on all of them.


4 Preditor/Prey Relationships

Bird---->Owl
Insects----> Bird
Fox----->Mouse
Weasel----> Squirrel


Threats to Tundras and Endangered Species

The most severe threat is global warming. Many scientists believe global warming caused by greenhouse gases may eliminate Arctic regions, including the tundras there, forever.
Two endangered species located in tundras are Polar Bears and Arctic Fox.
The global importance to this biome is very important, because with out this biome many food webs and chains would be interrupted and disturbed.