An output device is any piece of computer hardware item used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) which converts the electronically generated information into human-readable form.
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CPU pronounced as separate letters is the abbreviation for central processing unit.Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is the brains of the computer where most calculations take place.On personal computers and small device.


is a form of computer data storage. A random-access memory device allows dataitems to be accessed (read or written) in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the olderdrum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement.


A power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy to another and, as a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are discrete, stand-alone devices, whereas others are built into larger devices along with their loads. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices.


A Network interface card, NIC, or Network card is an electronic device that connects a computer to a computer network, usually a LAN. It is considered a piece of computer hardware. Today, most computers are equipped with network cards.


Graphics cards are also known as video cards are the part of a computer that are responsible for generating a feed of output images to display, either to your computer's screen or to an externally connected display (a monitor or television).


A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board,[1] or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems. It holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic components of a system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard usually contains significant sub-systems such as the central processor, the chipset's input/output and memory controllers, interface connectors, and other components integrated for general purpose use.
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During the Turing worked for the (GC&CS) at , Britain's centre. For a time he led , the section responsible for German. He devised a number of techniques for breaking German

including improvements to the pre-war Polish method and a machine that could find settings for the . Turing played a pivotal role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Nazis in many crucial engagements, including the ; it has been estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by as many as two to four years.



A binary code represents text or computer processor instructions using the binary number system's two binary digits, 0 and 1. The binary code assigns a bit string to each symbol or instruction. For example, a binary string of eight binary digits (bits) can represent any of 256 possible values and can therefore correspond to a variety of different symbols, letters or instructions.

what is a binary code?

A binary code represents text or computer processor instructions using the binary number system's two binary digits, 0 and 1. The binary code assigns a bit string to each symbol or instruction.

what is a network?

A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CDs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams.

bus network

A bus network is a network topology in which nodes are directly connected to a common linear (or branched) half-duplex link called a bus
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star network

This consists of a central node, to which all other nodes are connected; this central node provides a common connection point for all nodes through a hub. In star topology, every node (computer workstation or any other peripheral) is connected to a central node called a hub or switch.
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ring network

A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring. Data travel from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet.
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