Unit 5 Injuries in sport

Injuries and illnesses

Causes of injury

Some causes of injurys are:

.Intrinsic factors- This is injury caused inside the body , such as if you step off balance you could cause injury on your ankle , also if you break a bone it is more likely to break again as it is weaker.

.Extrinsic factors- These are the causes of injury outside the body , for example the ball, a bat , or another person.

.Overuse- When a althlete uses a joint too much and does not alllow the body enough time to recover.

.Alignment- body alignment is important as it prevents injury by standing or moving in the correct positions.

.Intensity- Injuries due to intensity are simalar to overuse injurys, it is due to overworking the body too hard. It could be to do with the pace or force that your are working at.

.Effect of levers- The levers on the bodu such as your elbow can be effected by having too much weight in your hand, for example weightlifters.

.Gravity - Gravity can effect the body because it is always pulling you down, therefor if you step and place your foot in a unnatural position it could cause damage to the ankle as you cannot stop yourself from falling.

Types of injury

There are many different types of injuries in sport.For example overuse injuries, these type of injuries usally apear over time ,this makes it harder to diagnose and treat.The are usally caused by microtrauma in the joints and bones.Common examples of overuse injuries are a tennis players elbow or a swimmers shoulder.

Dislocation,this is caused by two bones such as the knee bone which are usally on top of one another , moving next to each other , to fix this the bones have to be lifted and placed back ontop of one another.

Open fractures dont just damage the bone but the open the skin causing the bone to be sticking out iof the ligamant , in order to be repaired the bone has to be repared and the wound needs to be closed.This type of injury is at risk of infection so antibiotics may be required.

A closed fracture is similar however there is no breakage of the skin.Just brusing and swelling at the area of breakage.It is caused by a pressure or force onto the bone causing it to snap or break.It could also be acused by extrinsic factors such as a person or object.A cast is often used to treat a closed fracture.

A strain is caused by a muscle tendon being over streched or torn its usally caused by overuse and pain , bruising and swelling are common with this injury.

A sprain is when a ligament is overstreched or torn, much like a strain.There is no dislocation or fracture , just pain and swelling at the site.These can be treated with the P.R.I.C.E method which is : Protection, rest , ice , compression and elevation.

Traumatic injuries, these include:

.Contusion or bruising -Damage to small blood vessels which can lead to bleeding under the skin.

.Strain-Damage to a muscle tendon due to overstreching.

.Sprain- Damage to a joint due to ligament over streching.

.Wound-A type of injury where the skin is torn.

.Bone fracture-

.Head injury

.Spinal cord injury

Catastrophic injuries (severe trauma for the head , spine or brain

Overuse and repetative stress injury:

.Runners knee

.Tennis elbow


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How are the injuries treated?

For mild injuries that do not require medical treatment the P.R.I.C.E method can be used in order to help the injury heal as fast as possible.P.R.I.C.E stands for Protection , protect the effected area from further injury such as a sling support etc.The R stands for Rest , this can be done by reducing the amount of physical activity you do and use some sort of support such as crutches.The I stands for ice , applying a ice pack to the effected area for 10 to 30 minutes.The C stamds for compression, elastic compression bandages can be used to limit the swelling.Lastly the E stands for Elevation , keep the injured ligament well above the level of the heart, which could also help reduce swelling.

Some injuries will need medical attention such as a closed fracture, which will need a pot or a splint to hold it into place so the bones can rejoin correctly.An open fracture will need to be healed and the bone will have to be placed back in the correct position before a pot could be used.A less serious injury such as a strain or sprain could be healed by using the P.R.I.C.E method but if the pain continues then medical attention could be needed.

Injuries associated with sports

Open fractures are associated in sports as they are usually caused by intense amounts of pressure on a certain joint such as a rough tackle in football could cause the ankle to fracture. They are usually caused by extrinsic, but they could be caused intrinsically as you set your foot on the ground in a unusual position.

Closed fractures could be caused in a similar way, a high amount of force or pressure on a bone, only this time the bone won’t break the surface of the skin, this could be caused by a tackle in football, which is a extrinsic factor, but intrinsic factors could cause this for example falling on your arm.

A strain or sprain could also be caused by both intrinsic and extrinsic, but they are both usually caused by overuse, but this injury is less serious as the only symptoms are swelling and redness. A sport where this is likely to occur is tennis as there is always a lot of movement at the ankle, which could cause the ankle to twist the wrong way etc., causing injury.

Asthma- What is asthma? Asthma is a common condition that effects each person differently, its symptoms are wheezing or a couch and difficulty breathing , a sudden onset of these symptoms are called a asthma attack and can be life threatening. Asthma is caused by the inflation of the bronchi which carries air in and out of the lungs. When you breathe in something that irritates your lungs for example dust mite, this could cause the airways to narrow and the symptoms to occur. There is no cure for asthma but there are some treatments available which can help ease the symptoms such as an inhaler. Sports people who have asthma should be careful on how hard they train and should always have some form of treatment nearby when training. Asthma could be caused in sport as when people breathe normally, they usually breathe through their nose, but during exercise you usually breath through your mouth, which means that they are inhaling colder and drier air in asthma the airways are sensitive to these changes in temperature and they react by narrowing, this causes the symptoms above.

Heart attack- What is a heart attack? A heart attack is a serious medical emergency in which the direct blood supply to the heart is blocked usually by a blood clot, which can seriously damage the heart muscle. Symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pains, feeling weak, feeling light headed and a strong feeling of anxiety. Heart attacks are a medical emergency which means you will need to dial 999 right away and give the person a aspirin if not allergic, surgery may be required. A sports person who has suffered from a heart attack should be cautious when training and should never push themselves to hard. A heart attack could be caused because the heart of the person is already working hard with its clogged veins, and then when exercising it is causing extra stress onto the heart this could cause the heart attack.