Altered States of Conciousness

Psychoactive drugs

Psychoactive drug- A chemical substance that changes brain function and results in changes of mood, perception, or consciousness.

Stimulants-These are psychoactive drugs that induce temporary improvements in either mental or physical functions or both. Examples of these kinds of effects may include enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion, among others.

Depressants- A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

Opiates- Opioids are substances that act on the nervous system in a similar way to opiates such as morphine and codeine. In a medical context the term usually indicates medications that are artificially made rather than extracted from opium.

Psychedelic Drugs- A psychedelic substance is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and perception, typically by agonising serotonin receptors.

Tolerance- Drug tolerance is a pharmacology concept where a subject's reaction to a specific drug and concentration of the drug is reduced followed repeated use, requiring an increase in concentration to achieve the desired effect.

Withdrawal- Physical and mental symptoms that occur after stopping or reducing intake of a drug.

Addiction-Addiction is a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences. It can be thought of as a disease or biological process leading to such behaviors.

Dependence-the state of relying on or being controlled by someone or something else.

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Interesting Facts and Examples

Pyschoactive Drugs

  • impose a substantial health burden
  • cause social problems
  • can be addictive
Stimulants

  • act directly on CNS
  • effects can last from 4-6 hours
  • deteriorates the immune system
Depressants

  • alcohol
  • temazepam
  • solvents
Psychedelic Drugs

  • morphine
  • methodone
  • oxycodone
Tolerance

  • the appreciation of diversity
  • the ability to live and let live
  • ability to excersize a fair and objective attitude toward other
WIthdrawal

  • also called detox
  • physical dependence
  • psychological dependence
Addiction

  • a complex disease
  • have negative consequences for society
  • often chronic
Dependence

  • when one becomes dependent on a drug
  • to need it
  • to be freed from the shackles which have bound us to others.