chemistry of life

Dasia Arroyo

Information About Water.

  • Water heats slower and retains heat longer than many substances.
  • Water is cohesive, Which means it bonds to itself.
  • Water is adhesive, which means it bonds with other substances.
  • water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius and 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Nonpolar substances do not dissolve well in water.
  • water is less dense when frozen.
  • water is polar, which means the charges are uneven.
  • water is based on a pH scale from 0 - 14, with 7 being neutral, less than 7 indicating acid, and greater than 7 indicating a base.

Macromolecules

  • A macromolecule is a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, and synthetic polymers.
  • There are four types of macromolecules, which are lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are molecules that provide fuel and build structures in the body.
  • It is also a source of energy.

Three types of carbohydrates

  1. starches
  2. fiber
  3. sugars

Carbohydrates are divided into four groups

  1. Monosaccharides
  2. Disaccharides
  3. Oligosaccharides
  4. Polysaccharides

Examples

  • Glucose
  • Fructose
  • Lactose
  • chitin
  • Cellulose

proteins

  • Proteins are large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

eight types of proteins and their functions

  1. hormonal -are messenger proteins which help to coordinate certain bodily activities.
  2. enzymatic -are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions.
  3. structural -are fibrous and stringy and provide support.
  4. defensive-proteins involved in defending the body from antigens.
  5. storage-store amino acids.
  6. transport-are carrier proteins which move molecules from one place to another around the body.
  7. receptorcontrol the substances that enter and leave the cells, including water and nutrients.
  8. contractile-are responsible for movement.

lipids

A class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

Examples

  • natural oils
  • waxes
  • steroids

Function

Lipids store energy.

Nucleic Acids

A Nucleic acid is a complex organic substance present in living cells.

types of nucleic acid

  • DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
  • RNA -ribonucleic acid

Nucleic acids are important because they make up genetic information.