The Marine Biome

Mason, Vincent, John, Maggie and Riley room #3

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Wake up and dive right in! Feel the salty water drench your hair and splash your skin. The cool air whips threw your hair and the sea creatures swim gracefully around you. Where are you, you might ask? You are in the world’s largest marine biome or the world’s most expansive swimming pool! As you dive into the deep blue marine you will learn the ways of life under the sea! The majority of earth is covered by marine biome. The earth is made up of five major oceans. The climate of the ocean changes the deeper you go. When you go deeper and deeper the less sun you get, if you go deeper and deeper without sun the more pressure and colder it gets. To find out more about the marine biomes read on!


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Marine INtro Rm 3 by wampatuck5

Location

Marine Biomes are located all over the world! It’s actually the biggest biome in the world! The marine biome makes up about 70 percent of the world’s surface. That means only 30 percent of the earth is covered by land.  There are 5 major marine biomes on Earth.  They are the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. Gulfs and bays also make up parts of the marine biomes around the world. 

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Marine Location Rm 3 by wampatuck5

Climate

The Marine Biome can impact the climate on land however the deeper you go the more the Marine Biome changes. Climate is the change of weather over a period of years. As you go deeper in the water there is less sun which makes temperatures colder and the pressure increases. In the Marine Biome there are three zones. The first zone is the Euphotic zone. This is an area where sunlight can penetrate the ocean's surface. The Euphotic zone usually extends about 600 feet down. The second zone is the Disphotic zone. Since this zone is up to 3,300 feet deep, it is poorly lit. The temperatures here average from 39-41*F, much cooler than the euphotic zone. The last zone is the Aphotic zone. Since this zone is 13,000 feet deep (or sometimes even deeper) there is no light at all. Here temperatures are near freezing and pressure is extremely high. Due to the harsh climate in the Marine Biome zones, animals and plants need to adapt to survive.


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Marine Climate Rm 3 by wampatuck5

Plant Adaptations

The Marine Biome is home to many varieties of plants which live in many different parts of the ocean. This biome is split into three main zones. The zones are the Aphotic Zone, the Disphotic Zone, and the Euphotic Zone. Plants such as coral, Algae, and Kelp all have one thing in common, Adaptations. All of these plants have their own adaptations for the zone they live in. Since each zone differs in the amount of sunlight it receives, the temperature of the water, and the amount of pressure, the plants have to adapt to survive these environmental factors. One very important plant in the marine biome is algae. This plant lives in every zone in the marine biome! This plant plays an important role for us to survive today since it produces 90% of our oxygen on earth today through photosynthesis! That means that only 10% is produced by trees and plants on Earth. There are many different types of algae in the marine biome but there are other interesting plants too. Another cool plant that you have probably heard of is kelp. This plant lives in the Euphotic Zone and has many cool Adaptations. For example, kelp absorbs energy from waves before they hit the shoreline which protects many beaches. Another adaptation kelp has is it has a fast growing stem, which has gas filled compartments that help the blades reach the sunlight at the surface. Today Kelp is found in many products that humans use such as toothpaste and ice cream. Like plants, animals in the marine biome have had to adapt as well.


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Marine Plants Rm 3 by wampatuck5

Animal Adaptations

Let me tell you about the animals and their awesome adaptations to the three main zones of the ocean that they live in! The marine biome is separated into three main zones. The Euphotic zone, the Disphotic zone, and the Aphotic zone. Each zone consists of thousands of different species of animals. Several animals have some really cool adaptations, such as counter illumination, bioluminescence, camouflage, and being able to survive lots of pressure. For instance, in the Euphotic zone, there can live species such as the great white shark. It has several incredible adaptations, such as counter illumination, which is a feature of being able to have a dark color on the top, and a lighter color on the bottom, to blend in. Another feature of the great white shark is that they are a top predator of the ocean. The Disphotic zone is a zone where there is very little light at all. In this zone, as well as the Aphotic zone, gradually gets colder, with much more pressure. This level of the ocean consists of whales, including the sperm whale, jellyfish, for instance, the sea nettle, and fish, such as the fangtooth fish. All of those animals must be able to survive lots of pressure! In the Aphotic zone, the pressure is extremely high, and it is very, very cold! Have you ever been out on a winter day in a t-shirt? This is a million times worse! In the zone, there lives an incredible creature called the white snailfish. The white snailfish can hold as much pressure as 1600 elephants on a mini cooper car! The snailfish can also survive extreme cold ocean temperatures. There are many more adaptations for you to explore!

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Marine Animals Rm 3 by wampatuck5

Conclusion

The secret of the ocean is unfolding. Part of the most beautiful creatures live here! Some we didn’t even know about are deep down farther then you could ever imagine. Your mind must be spinning, you are standing on 30% of land. We have only explored 5% of the marine biome and there is much more ocean to go! You can help to by recycling and making our oceans a cleaner marine biome!