The four major phyla of the gymnosperms
- Gymnosperms consist of four main phyla: the Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta and Gnetophyta.
Coniferophyta and Cycadophyta
-Conifers ( Coniferophyta) are the dominant plant of the gymnosperms, having needle-like leaves and living in areas where the weather is cold and dry.
-Cycads (Cycadophyta) live in warm climates, have large, compound leaves, and are unusual in that they are pollinated by beetles rather than wind.
Gingkophyta and Gnetophyta
-Gingko biloba (Gingkophyta) is the only remaining species of the Gingkophyta and is usually resistant to pollution.
-Gnetophytes (Gnetophyta) are the gymnosperms believed to be most closely related to the angiosperms because of the presence of vessel elements within their stems
-Boundless. “Diversity of Gymnosperms.” Boundless Biology. Boundless, 13 Apr. 2016. Retrieved 16 May. 2016