British Isles

Climate and Geography

The Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Irish Sea and English Channel are water that surrounds British Isles. The Isles have fertile farmland. Southern Scotland is made up of rolling hills. Northern Scotland is more rugged North Wales is also mountainous, where South Wales has more valleys. Fog along coast is common. The air is often chilly.

Cultural and History

Celts, Romans, Germanic Tribes, and Normans were some of the groups of people that made up the British Isles. Language came from the Germanic and Norman people. Welsh is the 2nd official language in Wales. People in Scotland and Northern Ireland speak Gaelic and English, which are official languages in Ireland.


Wales was united with the UK in 1536. Scotland, Wales and England formed to create Great Britain, Ireland later joined. London is the capital of the UK. It has the Houses of Parliament. The Houses of Lords and The House of Commons are the 2 bodies that make up parliament. Monarchy has no power. Prime Minister is head of government.


Much land is suitable for growing and raising livestock. Wheat, oats, and barley are key grains. Potatoes are important. Ireland is known for great cattle. Chicken, hogs, and dairy cattle are very important. Sheep are raised for wool and meat. Fishing is important because water surrounds the British Isles.

Recreation and Holidays

Golf, hiking, mountain climbing, horseback riding, cycling, fishing, and tennis are common sports in the warm weather. Cold Weather activities include skiing, and curling. Soccer, rugby, cricket, and hurling.

New Years Eve is called Hogmanay, which is celebrated with bonfires and feasts. A tradition is to center the first person to enter a home after midnight, called a first-footer. The first-footer is to carry bread, coal and money. A New Years drink is a spiced ale from a wassail bowl, which is gaelic for "be well"

A festival occurs on St. Davids Day which is celebrated for the patron saint of Wales. (March 1st)

St. Patrick's Day is in honor of Ireland's patron saint. People dress in green. Is spent quiet with family and friends.

Guy Fawkes Night(Nov. 5th) is named for a man who tried to blow up the house of parliament in 1605. The get fireworks and have bonfires. The stuff things into clothes by the bonfire to represent Guy Fawkes.

British Cuisine


Hearty and Filling. Cooks use locally grown food.

The early Anglo-Saxons hunted, fished, gathered nuts and berried. Eventually made small gardens. Brewed ale from barley, made milk from sheep, cattle into butter and cheese, grain into bread. Roasted meat.


Bread, meat, cheese, pies, and puddings are still staples today. Steamed puddings, pickled meats are famous foods along with sweet pies, crumpets, and sweet yeast bread(Sally Lunn)

Main Dishes-

Kippers(split and slated herring)

Fish and Chips(deep fried fish with british style french fries)

Shepherd's Pie(chopped meat and leftover veggies topped with mashed potatoes and baked)

Toad in the Hole(thick batter over leftover meat and baking the thing)

Fruit and Veggies-

Apple(baked, apple charlotte, apple crumbs, apple pudding, apple sponge) Strawberries and thick cream. Carrots, spinach, peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes, onions are grown in gardens.

Pies and Puddings-

Steak and Kidney Pie(diced kidney w/ cubes of beef and gravy with pastry crust)

Each pudding starts wit h milk, sugar, eggs, flour and butter.

Breakfast- eggs, bacon, baked beans, fried bread, and tea.

Lunch- hearty meat and cheese sandwich with tea.

Tea is drank throughout the whole day.(may be known as a light meal)

Scottish Cuisine

Simple and Wholesome Foods.

Oats and Barley are staple foods.

Haggis(Pudding made from oatmeal, seasonings, and a sheep's organ)

Barley makes all the ales and liquors.

beef, lamb, and mutton are common. Fish is also common.

Scottish broth and Cock-a-leekie are common soups.

Breakfast- large amounts of porridge with baps (breakfast rolls), kippers, tea.

Baking Skills are most apparent at high tea, which is at 6. which is scones(triangle shaped biscuits), shortbread(buttery cookie), dundee cake(fruit cake with almonds), black bun(fruit cake w/pastry)

Welsh Cuisine

homegrown foods.

Lamb and Mutton are very common in welsh diet.

Cawl(soup made from mutton and leeks and other veggies)

beef, pork, veal and seafood are eaten. They grow potatoes, carrots, and other veggies and put them into stews.

With Tea-

Tatws Saw(potatoes mushed w/ buttermilk)

CremPog(buttermilk cakes)

Bara Brith(bread filled w/currants)

Welsh Rabbit is toast covered with rich cheese or sauce.

Irish Cuisine

Use recipes that have been handed down from generation to generation.


Potatoes is the mainstay diet. In 1847 the potato crop failed and thousands of irish people died. They use them in soups, stews, breads, rolls, cakes.

Boxty(fried cakes from raw potatoes, flour and salt.

Champ(mashed potatoes and scallions)

Main Dish-

Corned beef and cabbage is well known

Serve fist lamb of year on Easter Sunday.

Best known for boiled hams.

Irish breads can be called best in the world. Serve eggs, cold meat and salads at tea.

BarmBrack(fruitcake with butter)


porridge, eggs, bread and butter, and tea. Dinner is in the middle of the day. Tea is at 6


Cockles- type of mussel

Hogmanay- Scotland call New's Year Eve

First-Footer-person first in the house after 12

Wassail Bowl-toast of sweet ale

St. Davids Day- honors patron Saint of Wales

St. Patricks Day- Ireland's patron saint

Guy Fawkes Night- english holiday

Kippers- split and salted herring

Fish and Chips- deep fried fish w/ french fries

Bubble and Squeak- leftover beef and potatoes

Shepherd's pie- meat and leftover vegies with mashed potatoes

Steak and Kidney pie-diced kidney w/beef and gravy

Pudding Basin- where pudding are steamed

Summer Pudding-not boild or steamed

Trifle- pudding cake

tea- light meal

crumpets-like english muffin

Haggis- pudding made from oatmeal

Scotch Broth- lamb and barley

cock-a-leekie- chicken broth and leeks

Finnan haddie- split and smoked haddock

baps-soft breakfast rolls

Cawl- hearty soup from mutton

Tatws Slaw- potatoes mashed w/ buttermilk

Crempog- buttermilk cakes

Bara cerich- oatcakes

Bara brith- bread w/ currants

Welsh Rabbit- taost and rich cheese sauce

Black Famine- potato famine in 1847

Boxty- fried cakes made from potatoes

Champ- scallions w/ melted butter

Colcannon- scallions and cabbage

Corned Beef and Cabbage-beef brisket

Irish Stew- lamb and potatoes in gravy

Soda Bread

Brown Bread

BarmBrack- light fruit cake


A family Baker will wrap a wedding ring into the Bram Brack and whoever gets it will marry before the end of the year.

People throughout the British Isles love relaxing with friends in a pub or public place.

The name England comes from the name "Land of the Angles"In 1937 Ireland became it's own country.

In gaelic Ireland is Eire