Tundra's Biome


the Tundra is a large area of cold dry land that stretches across Canada, Northern Russia, and Northern Alaska. The climate is very cold almost the entire year and there is a very short growing season in the brief summer. The average temperature is around -18.4 degrees F (-28 degrees C), sometimes as low as -58 degrees F


Some of the animals that live in the Tundra include caribou Rangifer tarandus, musk ox--Ovibos moschatus, lemmings (Lemmus sibiricus), and snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca). In extreme conditions polar bears(Ursas maritimus), make their home.
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Because the Tundra contains a harsh climate trees can not live in this extreme biome, if they do the trees are very short. Nonvascular plants, like mosses and liverworts, can survive in the Tundra because they grow not but a few inches from the ground some include, caribou moss (Cladonia rangiferina), and peat moss (Sphagnum pulchrum). Heather (Erica ciliaris), labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), and tufted saxafrage (Saxfraga caepitosa), are just some of the vascular plants that can survive the harsh conditions of the Tundra


Every acre of the Tundra biome contains more than one ton of living bacteria. Bacteria in this biome, just like most other biomes, feed off of dead organisms. Mushrooms like the Amanita muscaria or more commonly known as the fly agaric, can be found in the Tundra biome.

Other organsims, such as the lichen shown at the right, are a cross between a fungi, and algae, or cyanobacteria. This is an example of mutualism, since the algae provide the fungi and bacteria with food and the fungi provide a home for the algae


Protists live everywhere in the Tundra. Though there are many more, some include Tracheleugly padenata or D. ovifomis.
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The bacteria in the tundra include 8 gram-negative rods, known as Achromobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, and 4 coliforms (Aerobacter aerogenes, A.c loacae, Escherichia freundiai, and E. intermeida). The three gram-positive forms identified were Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus faecalis.
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Animal types

  • Herbivorous mammals: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels
  • Carnivorous mammals: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears
  • Migratory birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers, terns, snow birds, and various species of gulls
  • Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bees
  • Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout

Arctic Tundra

Arctic tundra is located in the northern hemisphere, encircling the north pole and extending south to the coniferous forests of the taiga


Approximately 1,700 species of vascular plants are found across the Arctic tundra