Medical Topic Research Blog

Topic: Congestive Heart Failure by Sarah Benrud

Definitions and Analyses of Five Medical Terms

A. Word analysis of cardiovascular

cardi/o (CF) means heart

vascul (R) means small vessel

-ar (S) means pertaining to

Meaning: Pertaining to the heart and small blood vessels

B. Word analysis of myocardial

my/o (CF) means muscle

cardi (R) means heart

-al (S) means pertaining to

Meaning: Pertaining to the heart muscle (myocardium)

C. Word analysis of cardiomyopathy (CMP)

cardi/o (CF) means heart

my/o (CF) means muscle

-pathy (S) means disease

Meaning: Disease of the heart muscle that leads to generalized deterioration of the muscle and its pumping ability.

D. Word analysis of abnormal

ab- (P) means away from

norm (CF) means rule

-al (S) means pertaining to

Meaning: Pertaining to away from the norm or rule. A condition that is considered to not be normal.

E. Word analysis of infarction

infarct (CF) means infarct (necrosis of an area)

-ion means process

Meaning: Process of development of an infarct, which is death of tissue resulting from obstruction of blood flow.


The heart is the muscular pump that circulates blood through the heart, the lungs, and the rest of the body; it is essential to the human body. When the heart fails so does everything else. "Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome resulted from abnormality of cardiac structure or function, leading to failure of the heart to fill or eject blood." (Krum 2011; McMurray 2012) The American Heart Association estimates that 5.1 million people have heart failure. "Heart failure is one of the most important and prevalent diseases that may have negative effects on the quality of life." (Binaei N, 2016) It is often seen in older adults. According to Jessup, at least 20% of hospital admissions among people older than 65 years are due to heart failure (2003). Congestive Heart Failure occurs in the left-side of the heart. The left side of the heart consists of the left atrium and the left ventricle.

According to the American Heart Association coronary artery disease, past myocardial infarction (past heart attack), hypertension (high blood pressure), abnormal heart valves, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or myocarditis (all heart muscle diseases), congenital heart disease (heart muscle disease, severe lung disease, diabetes, obesity, and sleep apnea are conditions that could lead to congestive heart failure. Everyone loses some blood-pumping abilities in our hearts as we age, but having some of these conditions will greater your chance of heart failure. Men tend to develop heart disease earlier in life than women, but after menopause women catch up; one in four women die of heart disease. When a person attains congestive heart failure which is located in the left side of the heart, it often also affects the right side of the heart. When the left side of the heart fails, it causes a backup of blood which causes pulmonary edema, which causes dyspnea and shortness of breath.

Diuretics are considered currently to be the first-line treatment for patients with chronic heart failure, irrespective of aetiology, age, sex, and the individual characteristics of the patient, since they provide symptomatic relief (Anand, 1991; Bayliss, 1987; Robson, 1964) Diuretics decrease in re-absorption of sodium chloride by the kidneys, thereby increasing the amount of salt and water excreted in the urine. This action then reduces the amount of fluid retained in the body and prevents edema. Diuretics produce symptomatic benefits more rapidly than any other drug for heart failure. There was a study done in Iran concluding that hope-promoting intervention based on religious beliefs is a useful method for improving the quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure (2016). In the randomized clinical trial, 46 adult patients with congestive heart failure were assigned to study and control groups. A quality of life index was completed by both groups before, after, and 1 month after the hope-promoting intervention. Although medicine is crucial and has been able to save millions of lives, the study in Iran also showed that religious intervention and practices can help improve patients.

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Work Cited

American Heart Association. (2015) Causes of Heart Failure. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from

Binaei, N; Moeini, Mohaqheqhian, Z; Najafi, M; Sadeghi, M. "Effects of hope promoting interventions based on religious beliefs on quality of life of patients with congestive heart failure and their families." (2016) PubMed Retrieved March 17, 2016 from

Faris, Rajaa F. "Diuretics For Heart Failure." Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews 11 (2012): Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from

Inglis, S. C. (2015). mHealth education interventions in heart failure. Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from