Sigmund Freud

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Founder of Psychoanalysis. Proposed the first complete theory of personality. A person's thoughts and behaviors emerge from benson generated by unconscious motives and unresolved childhood conflicts.

  • Born in Frieberg in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Moved to Vienna in 1859, went to University of Vienna and received his medical degree in 1881
  • Married Martha Bernays and had 6 children.

Defense Mechanism

  • Repression: Put anxiety- producing thoughts, feelings, & memories into the unconscious mind. Ex: 3 years after being hospitalized for back surgery, the person can remember only vague details about the event
  • Displacement: Shifts of an unacceptable impulse towards a more towards or less threatening object or person. Ex: Angered by a neighbor's hateful comment, a mother spanks her daughter for accidentally spilling her milk.
  • Sublimation: A form of displacement in which sexual urges are channeled into nonsexual activities that are valued by society. Ex: A graduate student works on her thesis 14 hours a day while her husband is on an extended business trip.
  • Rationalization: Displaces real anxiety - provoking explanations with more comforting justifications for one's actions. Ex: After being rejected by a prestigious university, a student explains that he is glad because he would be happier at a smaller, less competitive college.
  • Projection: Reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses or problems about yourself to some one else. Ex: A married woman who is sexually attracted to a co-worker accuses him of flirting with her.
  • Reaction Formation: Replacing an unacceptable wish with is opposite. Ex: Threatened by their awakening sexual attraction to girls, adolescent boys often go out their way to tense and torment adolescent girls
  • Denial: Lets an anxious person to retreat to a more comfortable infantile stage of life. Ex: An alcoholic refuses to acknowledge that he is addicted to a drug.
  • Undoing: Unconsciously neutralizing an anxiety causing action by doing a second action that undoes the first. Ex: A woman who gets a tax refund by cheating on her taxes makes a larger than usual donation to the church collection on the following sunday.
  • Regression: Allows an anxious person to retreat to a more comfortable infantile stage of life. Ex: After her parents' divorce, a 10-year-old girl refuses to sleep alone in her room, crawling into bed with her mother.

Psychosexual Development

  • Oral ( 1-18 months): The infant derivers pleasure from oral stimulation Through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking.
  • Anal ( 18-36 months): Pleasure focus on bladder function coping with demands for control.
  • Phallic ( 3-6 years): Pleasure zone is the genitals, coping with incestuous feelings.
  • Latency ( 5- Puberty): Dormant sexual things.
  • Genitals ( Puberty on): Maturation of sexual interest.

Division of the Mind

  • Id- Instinctual drives present at birth
  • Ego: Develops out of the id in infancy
  • Superego: Internalization of society's and parental moral standards.