Dwight D. Eisenhower

Nicole Francis

"I Like Ike"

Election of 1952

Republican Candidate: D.Eisenhower

  • "Fair Play" Eisenhower's people claimed Taft's administration filled southern delegate positions with Taft supporters, Eisenhower wanted them replaced with pro-Eisenhower delegates

Democratic Candidate: A. Stevenson

Rep. won electoral vote by 76% but won popular vote only by 11%

Election of 1956

Republican Candidate: D.Eisenhower

Democratic Candidate: A. Stevenson

  • The Democratic Primary of 1956 debate was the first televised presidential debate
Eisenhower won electoral vote again but had only 57% of the popular vote

The Cold War

CIA Operations

  • Attempted to launch coups, assassinate heads of state, arm anti-Communist revolutionaries, spread propaganda, and support despotic pro-American regimes
  • Developing countries outside of Soviet Union's "sphere of influence"
  • CIA operations were less expensive and public than military operations
Suez Crisis (1956)
  • Britain and France help Israel invade Egypt's Suez Canal
  • Russia helps Egypt secure canal
  • US condemned Britain and France's attack and implored economic restrictions on them until they withdrew
Eisenhower Doctrine (1957)
  • Agree to provide military and economic assistance to Middle Eastern countries in resisting Communism
  • Demonstrated importance of oil in American policies
Clash with Cuba
  • F. Castro led Cuba in 1959 communist revolution
  • US cut sugar imports from Cuba
  • Khrushchev (SU) established nuclear base in Cuba
  • Marshall Plan- supported Latin America's fight against communism with $500 million

Joseph McCarthy

Republican US Senator

Accused hundreds of government figures of being communists, mainly Democrats

Gained wide public support

Ended many politicians careers by naming them as "red" sympathizers

Eisenhower privately disapproved of McCarthy's tactic, but supported him publicly

Lost influence when he accused the US Army

"McCarthyism" dangerous and inaccurate claims of people by society

Desegregation in the South

Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)

  • Montgomery, Alabama
  • Rosa Parks took a "white only" seat on a public bus and refused to give it up
  • Arrested for violating Jim Crow Laws
  • Launched year-long bus boycott
  • Martin Luther King Jr. gained foothold in fight for civil rights

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

  • Topeka, Kansas
  • Reversed 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision
  • Segregation in public schools was unconstitutional
  • Border States somewhat accepted ruling, Southern states refused
  • Declaration of Constitutional Principles (1956) southerners pledged resistance to desegregation movement
Little Rock Crisis (1957)
  • Arkansas called National Guard to prevent blacks from enrolling in Little Rock's Central High School
  • Eisenhower sent troops to escort the nine black students to class

Civil Rights Act of 1957

  • "Mildest cvil rights bill possible"
  • Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations
  • Federal command to protect blacks' voting rights

Republican Policies

"Dynamic conservatism" be liberal in helping people, be conservative in saving money

Goals of his presidency

  1. Balance federal budget
  2. Protect country from "creeping socialism"
  3. End defensive build-up, instead built fleet of super bombers (Strategic Air Command)
  4. Operation Wetback: return illegal immigrants to Mexico
  5. End trial preservation policies (unachieved)
  6. Reverse New Deal policies, except Interstate Highway Act
  7. End Cold War with Soviets

Vietnam War


US supported French colonial war in Indochina

Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese leader, become more communist as Americans refused to support self-determination of Southeast Asian countries

French troops were losing, but America refused to enter because Britain wouldn't enter

Geneva Conference halved Vietnam at 17th Parallel, the north side was communist and the south side became pro-Western

Communist North Vietnam won Vietnam-wide elections two years later and America withdrew its forces

Space Race

1957 Soviets launch first man-made satellite, Sputnik 1 into orbit
  • Americans feared Russians could attack with nuclear-tipped intercontinental ballistic missiles
1958 Eisenhower creates National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Congress passes National Defense Education Act to increase science and foreign language classes in public schools