Muscular and Endocrine System

By:Jennifer Cholula


The 650 muscles in the body not only support movement controlling walking, talking, sitting, standing, eating and other daily functions that people consciously perform but also help to maintain posture and circulate blood and other substances throughout the body, among other functions.

Muscles help with activities of the legs, arms and other appendages, but muscles also produce more movements, such as facial expressions, eye movements and respiration

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Skeletal muscles are the only voluntary muscle tissue in the human body and control every action that a person consciously performs. Most skeletal muscles are attached to two bones across a joint, so the muscle serves to move parts of those bones closer to each other.

Visceral, or smooth, muscle is found inside organs such as the stomach and intestines, as well as in blood vessels. It is called a smooth muscle because, unlike skeletal muscle, it does not have the banded appearance of skeletal or cardiac muscle. The weakest of all muscle tissues, visceral muscles contract to move substances through the organ. Because visceral muscle is controlled by the unconscious part of the brain, it is known as involuntary muscle, as it cannot be controlled by the conscious mind.

Cardiac muscle is an involuntary muscle responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The heart's natural pacemaker is made of cardiac muscle that signals other cardiac muscles to contract. Like visceral muscles, cardiac muscle tissue is controlled involuntarily. While hormones and signals from the brain adjust the rate of contraction, cardiac muscle stimulates itself to contract.

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Major Disorders

dermatomyositis, which is polymyositis accompanied by a skin rash; and inclusion body myositis, which is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting.Other common disorders are muscular dystrophies and metabolic muscle disorders,muscular dystrophy affects muscle fibers. Metabolic muscle disorders interfere with chemical reactions involved in drawing energy from food.Neuromuscular junction disorders impair the transmission of nerve signals to muscles,

Endocrine System

Function: The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things

Homeostasis Effects

Positive:The nervous and endocrine system control homeostasis in the body through feedback mechanisms involving various organs and organ systems . Examples of homeostatic processes in the body include temperature control, pH balance, water and electrolyte

balance, blood pressure, and respiration.

Negative:As the temperature rises (deviation from the ideal normal value), the thermostat detects the change and triggers the air-conditioning to turn on and cool the house. Once the temperature reaches its thermostat setting (ideal normal value), the air conditioning turns off.

Major Disorders

Type 1 Diabetes occurs when the body's own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (called beta cells).

Normally, the body's immune system fights off foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. But for unknown reasons, in people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks various cells in the body. This results in a complete deficiency of the insulin hormone.

Some people develop a type of diabetes called secondary diabetes which is similar to type 1 diabetes, but the beta cells are not destroyed by the immune system; rather, they are destroyed by some other factor, such as cystic fibroses or pancreatic surgery.

With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes,kidney,nerves, and gums and teeth.

You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having pre diabetes also increases your risk. Pre diabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes.