Presbyopia

Eye Condition

Definition

Presbyopia is an eye condition in which your eye slowly loses the ability to quickly focus on objects that are close to the eye. Presbyopia is a disorder that affects people during the natural aging process of their eyes (Giorgi, A., 2012).

Normal Eye vs. Aging Eye

People with normal vision can see up close and far, because their retina is healthy. When having Presbyopia, you are farsighted, which means you can see things at a distance rather than up close. Near age 40, is typically when people experience that they are having difficulty with seeing the same; overtime you can develop farsightedness or nearsightedness.


Uncorrected refractive error, also known as Presbyopia, is when you have an inability to focus on an object. People with normal eyes can see without blurred vision. The retina catches the light and color, whereas the color paces through and blurs if you have the eye condition (Loughman, J., 2015).


"Age-related changes also take place in the muscle fibers surrounding the lens. With less elasticity, the eye has a harder time focusing up close. Other, less popular theories exist as well" (Bailey, G., & Thompson, V., 2000).

Pupils, Retina, and Stimulus

If the eye is being over stimulated it is going to cause strain on the pupil and the retina. The contraction of the pupil causes muscle in the eye to decrease the contraction is what allows a person to have good and or bad focal vision (Benozzi, J., Benozzi, G., & Orman, B., 2012). As we age our eyes also age, so taking care of our eyes, such as not looking at a bright light too long, or eating healthy can help our eyes also stay healthy.

Gestalt Approach

Gestalt believed to embrace acceptance, you cannot always be in control of what happens, so just accept and focus on the day, not the upcoming days. "The idea of the Gestalt therapy is to avoid dwelling on the past or anxiously anticipating the future" (Perls, F., 2007).

Treatment


Bifocal eyeglasses can help with the eye condition. The top of the eyeglasses are the prescription and the bottom half is where you can see closer, so for reading for example. Another idea for someone with this condition is monovision, which is when the eye doctor can give the patient near vision for one eye and the other eye would see far vision.
Eyes change overtime so as someone ages their eyes may adjust or get worse later on, it is best to still see an eye doctor yearly. You can also get surgery, such as LASIK, which is for monovison, or the Kamra inlay, which implants under the top layers of the cornea in one eye. (Bailey, G., & Thompson, V., 2000).

"The restoration of accommodation can be achieved by stimulating ciliary muscle contractions with parasympathetic drug administration to modify the shape and position of the lens" (Benozzi, J., Benozzi, G., & Orman, B., 2012).

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Reference


Bailey, G., & Thompson, V. (2000). In Presbyopia. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/presbyopia.htm


Benozzi, J., Benozzi, G., & Orman, B. (2012). Presbyopia: a New Potential Pharmacological Treatment. . Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939740/


Giorgi, A. (2012, July 27). In What Is Presbyopia?. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://www.healthline.com/health/presbyopia


Loughman, J. (2015, June). Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error, Presbyopia, and Visual Impairment and Associated Quality of Life in Nampula, Mozambique. ProQuest Psychology Journals, 3(109). Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://search.proquest.com.bakerezproxy.palnet.info/psychology/docview/1687501541/A1807B48C184185PQ/1?accountid=8473


Perls, F. (2007). In Gestalt Therapy. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/gestalt-therapy


Presbyopia (n.d.). In Google Image. Retrieved January 13, 2016, from http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=Presbyopia&view=detailv2&id=223B29E4FF43C0C3EE7F301321FAA726579FB271&selectedindex=11&ccid=bya31TLC&simid=608050186077276275&thid=OIP.M6f26b7d532c284781826f7c9a1092