Virtual Dissection Project

Presented by Henryk Viana

The Digestion of an Earthworm

The Common Earthworm

The earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, is a well-adapted animal under the phylum Annelida. The earthworm's tube-shaped and segmented body is quite adapted to burrowing through the soil. The mucus-coated body helps oxygen pass through the skin of the earthworm in air or water.

Our Objectives are:

  1. Learn the generalities of the earthworm digestive system.
  2. Discuss the organs of the earthworm digestive system.
  3. Analyze the function of the earthworm digestive system.

Extra Information About the Common Earthworm

Earthworm Taxonomy:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Annelida
  • Class: Clitelatta
  • Order: Haplotaxida
  • Family: Lambricicdae
  • Genus: Lumbricus
  • Species: Terrestris
Earthworm Evolution:

  • Earthworm have actually evolved in response to environmental stress and have adapt to survive in harsh conditions.
  • The main evolutionary adaptation relates to its roughly cylindrical bodies that are perfectly suited for wiggling or burrowing through tight environments.
  • A worm's sense of touch is also an evolutionary adaptation that allows it to sense things like increased moisture, approaching predators and temperature changes.
Earthworm Ecology:

  • · Earthworms are divided into four groups, called ecotypes, each of which has a different life style.
  • Compost earthworms. As their name would suggest, these are most likely to be found in a compost bin. They prefer warm and moist environments with a ready supply of fresh compost material. They can very rapidly consume this material and also reproduce very quickly. Compost earthworms tend to be bright red in color and stripy. Compost earthworm species include Eisenia fetida and Eisenia veneta
  • . Epigeic earthworms live on the surface of the soil in leaf litter. These species tend not to make burrows but live in and feed on the leaf litter. Epigeic earthworms are also often bright red or reddy-brown, but they are not stripy. Epigeic earthworm speices include Dendrobaena octaedra, Dendrobaena attemsi,Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eiseniella tetraedra, Heliodrilus oculatus, Lumbricus rubellus,Lumbricus castaneus, Lumbricus festivus, Lumbricus friendi, Satchellius mammali.
  • Endogeic earthworms live in and feed on the soil. They make horizontal burrows through the soil to move around and to feed and they will reuse these burrows to a certain extent. Endogeic earthworms are often pale colours, grey, pale pink, green or blue. Some can burrow very deeply in the soil. Endogeic earthworm species include Allolobophora chlorotica, Apporectodea caliginosa, Apporectodea icterica,Apporectodea rosea, Murchieona muldali, Octolasion cyaneum and Octolasion tyrtaeum.
  • Anecic earthworms make permanent vertical burrows in soil. They feed on leaves on the soil surface that they drag into their burrows. They also cast on the surface, and these casts can quite often be seen in grasslands. They also make middens (piles of casts) around the entrance to their burrows. Anecic species are the largest species of earthworms in the UK. They are darkly coloured at the head end (red or brown) and have paler tail. Anecic earthworm species include Lumbricus terrestris and Apporectodea longa.

Earthworm Human Impact:

  • During agricultural processes, earthworms can improve the soil fertility, creating air pockets, in areas where the soil is too compact for human agriculture.
  • Earthworm in the soil make minerals more accessible, so plants may improve their growth.

The Circulatory System of a Perch

The Ordinary Perch

The perch is a common label for freshwater fishes of the genus Perca. Its name derives from the word "Perciformes”, from the Greek perke meaning spotted, and the Latin forma meaning shape. The perch are carnivorous fish that are most commonly found in small ponds, lakes, streams, or rivers.

Our Objectives are:

  1. Learn the generalities of the perch circulatory system.
  2. Discuss the organs of the perch circulatory system.
  3. Analyze the function of the perch circulatory system.

Extra Information About the Ordinary Perch

Perch Taxonomy:

  • · Kingdom: Animalia
  • · Phylum: Chordata
  • · Superclass: Osteichthyes
  • · Class: Actinopterygii
  • · Subclass: Neopterygii
  • · Infraclass: Teleostei
  • · Order: Perciformes
  • · Family: Percidae
  • · Genus: Perca
Perch Evolution:

Perches have many fine and sharp teeth. Due to its ability to crossbreed and the similar morphology among different varieties of perches, the perch has survived and adapted over time to many different environments. Zooplankton is the primary food source for young and larval perch, which increased their survival rate.

Perch Ecology:

Their microhabitat is usually along the shore among reeds and aquatic weeds, docks, and other structures. They are less abundant in deep and clear open water or unproductive lakes.In North America, perch are an extremely important food source for birds. Perch are commonly active during the day and inactive at night.Perch are most often found in schools. Their vision is necessary for schooling and the schools break up at dusk and reform at dawn. The schools typically contain 50 to 200 fish, and are arranged by age and size in a spindle shape.

Perch Human Impact:

The Perch have been commercially harvested over 100 years in United States and Canada over the Great Lakes area. Tons of perches with a value of millions of dollars are captured and sold each year.Also Fishing of perches is very popular as sport activity in North America and the rest of the world.

The Respiratory System of Arthropods

The Regular Grasshopper

The grasshopper is a terrestrial arthropod of the suborder Caelifera in the order Orthoptera. Species that change color and behavior at high population densities are called locusts.

Our Objectives are:

  1. Learn the generalities of the grasshopper respiratory system.
  2. Discuss the organs of the grasshopper respiratory system.
  3. Analyze the function of the grasshopper respiratory system.

Extra Information About the Regular Grasshopper

Grasshopper taxonomy:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthopoda
  • Subphylum: Hexapoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Orthoptera
  • Suborder: Caelifera

Grasshopper Evolution:

The ancestors of grasshoppers evolved over 200 millions year ago, during the Triassic period, when the first reptiles appeared on Earth. they are indeed adapted to fly very rapidly and without hesitation to capture their prey or escape from predators which had given them an evolutionary advantage.

Grasshopper Ecology: Many animal Many animals use sound to communicate, especially when it comes to wooing the opposite sex. To attract females, male grasshoppers rub their hind legs over a vein on their wings, producing a buzzing call that females use to locate and select their mates. Because grasshoppers have powerful jumping legs and wings. Most grasshoppers are strong fliers, and will make good use of their wings to escape predators.

Grasshopper Human Impact:

In many areas of Africa, Asia, and America both locusts and grasshoppers are a regular ingredient of the local diet. They also can cause tremendous damage to crops and could completely defoliate a landscape, leaving farmers without crops and people without food.