Heart Valve Disease
Structure Of The Heart
- Heart Chambers
--Left and Right Atria: receiving chambers, blood enters the heart through the veins that open into these upper cavities.
--Ventricles: wall of each chamber is lined by a thin layer of very smooth tissue which is known as endocardium.
-The left valve is the tricuspid which is between the right atrium and ventrical.
-The semi-lunar valves are located between the two ventricular chambers and large arteries that carry blood away from the heart.
--Inner layer is the visceral paricardium, it covers the heart like apple skin covers an apple.
--Outter layer is parital, it fits around the heart like a loose fitting sock, allowing the heart to beat.
- Blood Vessels
-Left and Right Pulmonary Artery: Carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
-Pulmonary Trunk: Blood exits the right ventricle through the pulmonary trunk.
-Left and Right Pulmonary Vein: Return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
-Superior Vena Cava: Transports oxygen blood from the upper extremities, head, and neck.
-Inferior Vena Cava: Transports oxygen blood from the thorax, abdomen, and lower extremities.
-Arteries: take blood from the heart
-Veins:Bring blood to heart
-Capillaries: Between veins and arteries.
- Right side: deoxgenated
- Left sidea: oxgenated
- The blood flow starts from the right atrium (coming from body) it then goes to the right ventrical moving to the lungs then the the left atrium which then goes to the left ventrical and back to the body.
Conduction System Of The Heart
- Sinoatrial node: pacemaker
- Atrioventricular: AV node
- AV bundle
- Purkinje fibers
Main Types Of Blood Vessels
- Veins: low pressure, bigger than arteries, have valves, bring blood to heart.
- Arteries: higher pressure, take blood away from heart.
- Capilaries: form networks joining arteries and veins, really small.
- P: depolarization of atria
- QRS: depolarizing ventricles
- T: re-polarization ventricles (back to normal)
- Blood Pressure: the pressure at which the blood stops flowing through your veins and arteries and when the blood starts flowing again.
- Blood Volume: the larger the volume the more pressure is exerted on the vessel walls.
- Strength of heart contractions: affect cardiac output, stronger heartbeat, increases pressure, weak beat decreases it.
- Heart Rate: increased rate increases pressure, decreased rate decreases pressure.
- Blood Viscosity (thickness): less than normal viscosity decreased pressure, more than viscosity increases pressure.
- Resistance to blood flow (peripheral resistance): affected by many factors, including the vasomotor mechanism, vessel muscle contraction relaxation.
- EKG: a test that checks for problems with the electrical activity.
- Heart Sound: a test that detects the rhythmical and repetitive lub dup.
- Pulse: Beats per minute
- Blood Tests:
-WBC count: Blood test to measure the amount of white blood cells in the blood.
-Platelet count: Blood test to measure the amount of platelets are in the blood.
* Would not affect these tests because the heart valve has nothing to do with the blood counts.
- Blood Pressure: Tests that detects the pressure of blood flowing and stopping.
- Stroke Volume: The amount of blood that is ejected from the ventricles of the heart with the heart beat.
- Cardiac Output: A test that refers to how much blood is pumped out of the heart per minute.
- Valves being the wrong size (born with)
- Valves having malformed leaflets or leaflets not attached correctly (born with)
- Changed in valve structure due to diseases or infections
- Rheumatic fever: untreated bacterial infected (usually strep throat)
- Endocarditis: when germs especially bacteria go into the bloodstream and attack the heart valves.
- Coronary artery disease
- Heart attack
- Heart muscle disease
- High blood pressure
- Aortic aneurysms
- Connective tissue diseases
- Heart Valve Replacement: When heart valve repair isn't an option, heart valve replacement is effective.
- Heart Valve Repair: Involves the heart valve leaflets that open and close to pump blood through the heart.
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