By: Jordan Easter

Thaddeus Stevens

  • He was a Congressmen from Pennsylvania
  • He was a leader of the Radical Republicans
  • He sought to secure African Americans' rights during Reconstruction
  • He was chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, so he played a major role in the Civil War's financing
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Andrew Johnson

  • Became president after Lincoln was assassinated
  • He was a Democrat, with the Radicals opposing him
  • He is considered to be one of the most unfortunate presidents
  • In 1865, he pardoned all southerners who would take an oath of allegiance, but required leaders and men of wealth to obtain special Presidential pardons
  • In December 1865, most southern states were reconstructed, but "black codes" were beginning to appear
  • He vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, but Congress got enough votes to override his veto (first time in history that this happened)
  • Johnson was impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act
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Civil Rights Act of 1866

  • President Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill, but Congress overturned the veto with two-thirds majority vote
  • This act granted citizenship to all males in the United States, regardless of race, religion, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude
  • The act specifically defines the rights of American citizenship
  • The act made it unlawful for any person to be denied of these rights
  • It was important in the Reconstruction Era because it gave African Americans the right to be assimilated in American society as equals
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Freedmen's Bureau

  • Established in 1865 by Congress to help newly freed slaves and poor whites in the South after the Civil War
  • The bureau provided food, housing, education, medical aid, and offered legal assistance
  • They negotiated labor contracts for ex-slaves and settled labor disputes
  • They even helped former slaves legalize marriages and locate lost relatives
  • However, they had a shortage of funds, so Congress shut the bureau in 1872
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