Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Children and Adults with ADHD have tend to have these characteristics
- Smoking or drinking during pregnancy.
- Birth complications or very low birth weight.
- Exposure to lead or other toxic substances.
- Extreme neglect, abuse, or social deprivation.
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Applied behavior analysis
Clinical psychologist: Treats mental disorders primarily with talk therapy.
Psychiatrist: Treats mental disorders primarily with medications.
Pediatrician: Provides medical care for infants, children, and teenagers.
Detecting symptoms differs from case to case, and the more severe, the earlier the diagnosis.
- 8 years old: average age of diagnosis for children with mild ADHD
- 7 years old: average age of diagnosis for children with moderate ADHD
- 5 years old: average age of diagnosis for children with severe ADHD
Data for children ages 5-17
Prevalence by Race:
All - 9.4%
White - 9.6%
Black - 10.5%
American Indian/Alaska Native - 6.4%
Asian - 1.4%
Multiple race - 11.6%
Prevalence by Ethnicity:
Hispanic - 4.9%
Non-Hispanic - 10.6%
Non-Hispanic White - 11.2%
Non-Hispanic Black - 10.8%
- Number of children 3-17 years of age ever diagnosed with ADHD: 5.9 million
- Percent of children 3-17 years of age ever diagnosed with ADHD: 9.5%
- Percent of boys 3-17 years of age ever diagnosed with ADHD: 13.5%
- Percent of girls 3-17 years of age ever diagnosed with ADHD: 5.4%
Symptoms of the different genders
- impulsivity or “acting out”
- hyperactivity, such as running and hitting
- lack of focus, including inattentiveness
- physical aggression
- being withdrawn
- low self-esteem and anxiety
- intellectual impairment and difficulty with academic achievement
- inattentiveness or a tendency to “daydream”
- verbal aggression: teasing, taunting, or name-calling
- Less than 1 in 3 children with ADHD received both medication treatment and behavioral therapy, the preferred treatment approach for children ages 6 and older.
- Only half of preschoolers (4-5 years of age) with ADHD received behavioral therapy, which is now the recommended first-line treatment for this group.
- About half of preschoolers with ADHD were taking medication for ADHD, and about 1 in 4 were treated only with medication.
IS ADHD LINKED TO OTHER DISORDERS?
- Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.
- Often has trouble holding attention on tasks or play activities.
- Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
- Is often easily distracted
- Is often forgetful in daily activities.
Hyperactivity and Impulsivity:
- Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet, or squirms in seat.
- Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.
- Is often "on the go" acting as if "driven by a motor".
- Often talks excessively.
- Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed.
- Often has trouble waiting his/her turn.
Early 1900s: 1902
ADHD was first mentioned in 1902. British pediatrician Sir George Still described “an abnormal defect of moral control in children.” He found that some affected children could not control their behavior the way a typical child would, but they were still intelligent.
The Introduction of Benzedrine: 1936
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Benzedrine as a medicine in 1936. Dr. Charles Bradley stumbled across some unexpected side effects of this medicine the next year. His patient's’ behavior and performance in school improved when he gave it to them.
The Introduction of Ritalin: 1955
The FDA approved the psychostimulant Ritalin in 1955. It became more popular as an ADHD treatment as the disease became better understood and diagnoses increased. The medicine is still used to treat ADHD today.
A Changing Definition: 1980
They changed the name of the disorder from hyperkinetic impulse disorder to attention deficit disorder (ADD).
A Name That Fits: 1987
They removed the hyperactivity distinction and changed the name to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A Climb in Diagnoses 1990s
ADHD cases began to climb significantly in the 1990s.
- doctors are able to diagnose ADHD more efficiently
- more parents are aware of ADHD and are reporting their children’s symptoms
- more children are actually developing ADHD
Scientists are trying to identify the causes of ADHD as well as possible treatments.