Language Arts 8th Grade

What we've learned this year! By: Grant Doiga


A subject of sentence tells you what the sentence is about. A complete subject contains the modifiers that refer to the subject.

Ex. The dog is scary (subject-dog)

The dog that is big and off the leash is scary.

(complete subject- the dog that is big and off the leash)


Ex. The tree grew fast (verb-grew)

The oak tree grew really fast during fall. (complete predicate- grew really fast during fall)


A noun refers to a person, place,idea or thing. (Ex. Stage,Court, House)

A compound noun is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun.

A common noun names any one a group of persons, places, things, or ideas.(table)

A proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing. (Grant)

A pronoun is used to replace or refer to a noun. (Ex. she, us, me)

An adjective describes a Noun. It tells what kind, which one, how many.(A lot, Bunch, Many)


Nouns: I went to the basketball court.
Compound noun: We ate snowballs on the last day of school.

Pronouns: I went to the park to play with friends

Adjective: We played for hours because it our favorite thing to do.


A verb is a word that helps identify an action.

A linking verb connects the subject to the word or words that it's describing.

A transitive verb is a verb that describes an action happening to the noun or subjects.

An intransitive verb is verb that doesn't effect the noun or subject.

An adverb is a verb that modifies a verb, adjective, or another verb.

A preposition is a word that shows relation with the noun.

A conjunction is a word used to join other groups of words.

A Interjection is a word used to describe how a person feels


Verb- I kicked the soccer ball hard.

Linking verb- i was tired after playing basketball.

Transitive verb- I ran home with the ball.

Intransitive verb- We arrived at school late.

Adverb- The man crawled slowly to his house.

Preposition- The package under the tree is mine.

Conjunction- I wanted to go but i didn't.

Interjection- Ouch! That hurt.


A Complement is a word that complements the verb.

A Direct object is a noun or pronoun that tells what receives an action.

A Indirect object is a noun or pronoun or a word group that contains direct objects.

A Subject complement is a word that complements the meaning of a linking verb.

A Predicate nominative is a word or word group that is also a predicate.

A Predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate but defines the subject.


Complement- I took the basketball.

Direct Object- Our class built a replica of a volcano.

Indirect- I showed the team my dribbling.

Subject- The dog stole my basketball.

Predicate Nominative- Sam is a painter.

Predicate Adjective- The dog is ugly.


A Phrase: Is a group of related words that does not contain a verb and it's subject.

A Prepositional Phrase: Includes a preposition, a noun, or pronoun that modifies the object.

An Adverb Phrase: A phrase that modifies a verb an adjective is an adverb phrase.

A Participle: A verb that can be used as an adjective.

A Participle Phrase: Consist of a participle and any complements.

A Gerund: Is a verb form ending in -ing.

A Gerund Phrase: Consist of a gerund and any modifiers or compliments the gerund has.

An Infinitive: A verb form that can be used as a noun, adjective, or an adverb.


Phrase- A message was given from the other baseball coach.

Prepositional Phrase- The court is down the road.

Adverb- We played throughout the day.

Participle- The Mean kid waved.

Participle Phrase- Looking at my nose seemed weird.

Gerund- When i stopped moving i felt really hot.

Gerund Phrase- playing basketball is inferring with school.

Infinitive- Basketball is a good sport to play anywhere.


A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject that is used as a sentence or part of a sentence.

An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

A Subordinate Clause: Does not express a complete thought.

An Adjective Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.

An Adverb Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a verb or adjective or adverb.

A Noun Clause: A subordinate clause used as a noun.


Clause- We went to the court.

Independent Clause-The sun rose.

Subordinate Clause- After looking through the book, I fell asleep.

Adjective Clause- The boy with the blue cap ran away.

Adverb- When winter sets in, I'll regret not going outside during the summer.

Noun Clause- Whatever you decide is fine with me.


Simple sentence: contains one independent clauses and no subordinate.

Compound Sentence: Has 2 or more independents and no subordinate.

Complex Sentences: One independent and 2 or more subordinate.

Compound-Complex Sentences: Has 2 or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause

Simple Sentences- The barber gave me a new look.

Compound Sentences- I like to fish, and I love baseball.

Complex Sentences- I feel like eating a bunch of chips after I workout.

Compound-Complex- When Collin left, he locked the door, and he ran to the car.


Antecedent: A pronoun should agree in both number and gender.

Agreement in subject and verb: The verb should agree with its subject.

Problem in agreement is the number of its subject is not changed by a phrase or following clause by it's subject.

Similar subjects joined by Or or Nor take a singular verb.

Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb


Compound Sentence- I like to hit homers with my brothers.

Antecedent- My brother made his first home with his team 5 years ago.


Irregular Verbs: It forms a past and past participle in some other way than adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.

Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.

Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.

Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.

Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.

Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.


Irregular- Carlos has gone shopping at the mall.

Verb Tense- I saved my money, and now l can go buy a dog.

Consistency- When we are ready and stretched we go outside and play basketball.

Passive- The cake was delivered by a lion.

Active- My dog broke my door


The Nominative Case: The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.

A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.

The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.

An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.

Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.

Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.


Case- Many of the singers fans waited outside.

Nominative- Did he and she by tickets to the game.

Direct- Evan surprised them with a gift basket.


Modifier: Is a word group that makes the meaning of another word specific.

Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not alll do.

Adjectives: They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.

Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.

Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Well: Use well to modify a verb.

Irregular Comparison: The comparison and superlative degree.

Superlative Forms: Use the comparative degree when comparing two or more things.

Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.

Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparison.

Double Negatives: Avoid using double negatives

Prepositional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.

Participle Phrases: Consist of a verb form.

Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.


Modifier- Ramona makes beautiful drawings.

Adverb- What a lovely dress.

Adjective- Dogs run fast.

Linking Verbs- My story was very powerful.

Good- Taylor's voice sounded very good to me.

Well- I do well is basketball.

Irregular Comparison- Good, Better, Well, Worse

Superlative Forms- The second paper is harder than the first.

Else- We weren't letting anyone else get in the door.

Prepositional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.

Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help in my dream.

Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.

Chapter 12: A Glossary of Usage

Glossary: A alphabetical list of special terms or expressions.

A: Use "A" in front of a word with a consonant sound.

An: Use "an" in front of a word with a vowel.

Accept: Accept is a verb that means to receive.

Except: Is a word that means to leave out or to exclude.

Ain't: Means completely prepared.

A Lot : Should always be written in two words

As: See like, as

As If: To see as a thought

At: Do not use after where

Bad: Is an adjective

Badly: Is an adverb


A- He was not considered a hero.

An- An oxen is a large antelope.

Accept- I accept your gift.

Except- Everyone joined except joey.