Language Arts 8th Grade
What we've learned this year! By: Grant Doiga
CHAPTER 1: SUBJECTS AND PREDICATES
Ex. The dog is scary (subject-dog)
The dog that is big and off the leash is scary.
(complete subject- the dog that is big and off the leash)
CHAPTER 2: PARTS OF SPEECH
A compound noun is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun.
A common noun names any one a group of persons, places, things, or ideas.(table)
A proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing. (Grant)
A pronoun is used to replace or refer to a noun. (Ex. she, us, me)
An adjective describes a Noun. It tells what kind, which one, how many.(A lot, Bunch, Many)
CHAPTER 3: PARTS OF SPEECH OVERVIEW
A linking verb connects the subject to the word or words that it's describing.
A transitive verb is a verb that describes an action happening to the noun or subjects.
An intransitive verb is verb that doesn't effect the noun or subject.
An adverb is a verb that modifies a verb, adjective, or another verb.
A preposition is a word that shows relation with the noun.
A conjunction is a word used to join other groups of words.
A Interjection is a word used to describe how a person feels
Verb- I kicked the soccer ball hard.
Linking verb- i was tired after playing basketball.
Transitive verb- I ran home with the ball.
Intransitive verb- We arrived at school late.
Adverb- The man crawled slowly to his house.
Preposition- The package under the tree is mine.
Conjunction- I wanted to go but i didn't.
Interjection- Ouch! That hurt.
CHAPTER 4: COMPLEMENTS
A Direct object is a noun or pronoun that tells what receives an action.
A Indirect object is a noun or pronoun or a word group that contains direct objects.
A Subject complement is a word that complements the meaning of a linking verb.
A Predicate nominative is a word or word group that is also a predicate.
A Predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate but defines the subject.
CHAPTER 5: THE PHRASE
A Prepositional Phrase: Includes a preposition, a noun, or pronoun that modifies the object.
An Adverb Phrase: A phrase that modifies a verb an adjective is an adverb phrase.
A Participle: A verb that can be used as an adjective.
A Participle Phrase: Consist of a participle and any complements.
A Gerund: Is a verb form ending in -ing.
A Gerund Phrase: Consist of a gerund and any modifiers or compliments the gerund has.
An Infinitive: A verb form that can be used as a noun, adjective, or an adverb.
Phrase- A message was given from the other baseball coach.
Prepositional Phrase- The court is down the road.
Adverb- We played throughout the day.
Participle- The Mean kid waved.
Participle Phrase- Looking at my nose seemed weird.
Gerund- When i stopped moving i felt really hot.
Gerund Phrase- playing basketball is inferring with school.
Infinitive- Basketball is a good sport to play anywhere.
CHAPTER 6: THE CLAUSE
A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject that is used as a sentence or part of a sentence.
An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.
A Subordinate Clause: Does not express a complete thought.
An Adjective Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.
An Adverb Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a verb or adjective or adverb.
A Noun Clause: A subordinate clause used as a noun.
Clause- We went to the court.
Independent Clause-The sun rose.
Subordinate Clause- After looking through the book, I fell asleep.
Adjective Clause- The boy with the blue cap ran away.
Adverb- When winter sets in, I'll regret not going outside during the summer.
Noun Clause- Whatever you decide is fine with me.
CHAPTER 7: SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Simple sentence: contains one independent clauses and no subordinate.
Compound Sentence: Has 2 or more independents and no subordinate.
Complex Sentences: One independent and 2 or more subordinate.
Compound-Complex Sentences: Has 2 or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause
CHAPTER 8: AGREEMENT
Antecedent: A pronoun should agree in both number and gender.
Agreement in subject and verb: The verb should agree with its subject.
Problem in agreement is the number of its subject is not changed by a phrase or following clause by it's subject.
Similar subjects joined by Or or Nor take a singular verb.
Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb
CHAPTER 9: PRINCIPAL PARTS, REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS, TENSE, VOICE
Irregular Verbs: It forms a past and past participle in some other way than adding -d or -ed to the base form.
Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.
Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.
Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.
Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.
Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
CHAPTER 10: USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY
The Nominative Case: The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.
A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.
The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.
An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.
Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.
Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.
CHAPTER 11: USING MODIFERS CORRECTLY
Modifier: Is a word group that makes the meaning of another word specific.
Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not alll do.
Adjectives: They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.
Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.
Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
Well: Use well to modify a verb.
Irregular Comparison: The comparison and superlative degree.
Superlative Forms: Use the comparative degree when comparing two or more things.
Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.
Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparison.
Double Negatives: Avoid using double negatives
Prepositional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.
Participle Phrases: Consist of a verb form.
Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.
Modifier- Ramona makes beautiful drawings.
Adverb- What a lovely dress.
Adjective- Dogs run fast.
Linking Verbs- My story was very powerful.
Good- Taylor's voice sounded very good to me.
Well- I do well is basketball.
Irregular Comparison- Good, Better, Well, Worse
Superlative Forms- The second paper is harder than the first.
Else- We weren't letting anyone else get in the door.
Prepositional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.
Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help in my dream.
Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.
Chapter 12: A Glossary of Usage
A: Use "A" in front of a word with a consonant sound.
An: Use "an" in front of a word with a vowel.
Accept: Accept is a verb that means to receive.
Except: Is a word that means to leave out or to exclude.
Ain't: Means completely prepared.
A Lot : Should always be written in two words
As: See like, as
As If: To see as a thought
At: Do not use after where
Bad: Is an adjective
Badly: Is an adverb