Dwight Eisenhower

Winn Hermanski

Presidential Elections

Election of 1952-

Republican: Dwight Eisenhower (55.2 percent of popular vote, 442 electoral votes, 39 states)

Democrat: Adlai Stevenson (44.3 percent of popular vote, 89 electoral votes, 9 states)

Election of 1956

Republican: Dwight Eisenhower (57.4 percent of popular vote, 457 electoral votes, 41 states)

Democrat: Adlai Stevenson (42.0 percent of popular vote, 73 electoral votes, 7 states)

Cold War

  • A period of strained relations between the "Western Bloc" and "Eastern Block"
  • Western bloc- United States and NATO members along with other western powers
  • Pushing for democracy
  • Eastern bloc- Soviet Union and countries in the Warsaw Pact
  • Pushing for the spread of communism

Events Under Eisenhower pertaining to Cold War:
  • Korean War (50-53)
  • Hungarian Revolution (56)
  • Suez Crisis (56)
  • Berlin Crisis (61)
  • Vietnam War (55-75):
  • The north was communist and supported by the USSR, China and North Korea and the south was capitalist and supported by the US and its allies
  • Began with the US being asked by France (NATO) to keep communism out of their territory in Vietnam
  • This gets the US overly involved and now they can't back out because they need to demonstrate their support of containment.
  • Nixon pushed for us to get involved of show our "policy of boldness"
  • Fighting a losing battle, but there was no way to back out now that we dipped our toe in the water

Joseph McCarthy and the Space Race

    • Joseph McCarthy
  • Accused Secretary of State Dean Acheson of employing over 200 members of the Communist party
  • It was proved true that 57 were actually employed, 0 actually convicted
  • This gave him notoriety and now he could lead the campaign for the exposure of communism in America
  • He accuses General George Marshall for being in a communist conspiracy as well
  • He ruined so many lives through his stint that we was deemed "Low-Blow Joe"
  • He was finally was shut up when he accused the military. They fought back in the form of hearings and Senate exposed him for "unbecoming" behavior

  • Soviets shot Sputnik I into orbit and, unanswered by the US, shot an even larger Sputnik II into orbit
  • This feat instilled fear into the American public
  • The Sputnik gave hard evidence to all the Soviet's claims of superiority
  • The launch also meant they had the ability to shoot other objects, such as missiles, capable of reaching the US
  • Eisenhower creates NASA with billions of dollars for research
  • The first few satellites were unsuccessful, but by we had several in orbit by 1970.
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Eisenhower's Policies on Desegregation and Republicanism

  • Eisenhower was hands off on the issue, letting the judicial branch sort out civil rights
  • Most civil rights victories in the court room
  • Brown v Board of Education: Court ruled that segregation was separate AND unequal and therefore discriminatory/unconstitutional
  • The border states complied with desegregation but the deep south showed resistance.
  • The Governor of Arkansas sent the National Guard to a school to prevent black students from attending in Little Rock at Central HS
  • Eisenhower was forced to act, sending troops in to allow the children to enroll
  • In response, he created the Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • He called it the mildest civil rights bill possible to appease his southern supporters
  • Act set up a Commission to look into injustices against blacks.
  • It also protected voting rights
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott:
  • Rosa Parks sat in the whites only section of a bus in Montgomery
  • She was arrested under the Jim Crowe Laws
  • This sparked a year long boycott of bus use by blacks
  • Indicated blacks wouldn't stand by and have their rights taken

  • Republicanism
  • Wanted to protect the US from "creeping socialism"
  • Small-government: cut Truman's defense spending that took up 10 percent of GNP
  • Oil fields were reallocated to states rather than federal government
  • TVA was challenged with the use of power companies
  • Illegal immigrants were sent back to Mexico under Operation Wetback
  • Canceled tribal preservation for Native Americans
  • Reverted back to the Dawes Act
  • Backed the Interstate Highway Act, creating jobs and improving transportation