By: Danielle Laya Castro
- short for 'biological sensor'
- an analytical device used to detect an analyte
a) Transducer - acts as an interface, measuring the physical change that occurs with the reaction at the bioreceptor, then transforming that energy into a measurable electrical output
b) Biological Element (enzyme/nucleic acid/antibody) - reacts with an analyte (the substance being tested); its ability to react with the target compound is the basis for a biosensor
c) Detector - converts amplified and analyzed signals from the transducer into concentration units, which will then be transferred to a display/data storage device
Prof. Leland C. Clark Jr. (1918-2005)
- Father of biosensors
- Used platinum electrodes to detect oxygen
- Enzyme: glucose oxidase (GOD)
- The higher the glucose content, the more oxygen is consumed; the lower the glucose content, the more hydrogen peroxide is produced.
- Either an increase in hydrogen peroxide or a decrease in oxygen can be measured to give an indication of the glucose concentration.
- Detects, records and transmits information regarding a physiological change/process
- Determines the presence and concentration of a specific substance in any test solution
- Measures a wide spectrum of analytes, including organic compounds, gases, ions and bacteria
Some Types of Biosensors
Measures the temperature change of the solution containing the analyte after enzyme action
Measures redox reactions
First of the biosensors
Measures both catalytic and affinity reactions
- Used in the food industry to measure carbohydrates, alcohols and acids during quality control processes
- Used to check fermentation during the production of beer, yoghurt and soft drinks
- Detecting pathogens in fresh meat, poultry or fish
- Glucose monitoring in diabetes patients
- Routine analytical measurement of folic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and pantothenic acid as an alternative to microbiological assay
Examples of Trends/Studies
- For water monitoring
- Protein-based Biosensor Assemblies for Drug Screening and Pharmaceutical Kinetic Studies
- Diagnosis of HPV (Human Papillomavirus)
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