The long adventures
McGillivray was born in 1750 in Little Tallassee near present-day Montgomery, Alabama. Alexander McGillivray was one of many Southeastern Indians with a Native American mother and European father. He played off European powers to protect Creek interests. He was more comfortable in the colonial society of his father. Before he went to the Creek society in 1777 he had lived in Augusta. In the begining of the American Revolution (1775-83) McGillivray permanently returned to Little Tallassee when the revolutionaries removed his Tory father's property in South Carolina.
After the Revolution, McGillivray used his growing influence within Creek society to resist Georgia's attempt to remove three million acres of land and to otherwise protect what he viewed as the sovereign rights of the Creek people. He argued that Creeks had legitimate claims to their land. To these ends, in 1784 he negotiated the Treaty of Pensacola with Spain, which protected Creek rights in Florida and guaranteed access to the British trading firm. The Yazoon land fraud by Georgia and the federal government's desire to take control of Indian affairs led to U.S. president George Washington's signing of the 1790 Treaty of New York, in which the United States promised to defend Creek territorial rights.
Chief Creek who worked out the Treaty of Indian Springs.
Dahlonega Gold Rush
Discovered in 1829
1st gold mining center in the U.S.
Created the syllabury.
A group of symbols that stand for whole symbols.
William McIntosh was a controversial chief of the Lower Creeks in early-nineteenth-century Georgia. He helped of the United States and its efforts to have the Creek territory. Many Creeks who opposed against this. He supported General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1813-14, also known as the Red Stick War and part of the larger War of 1812 conflict (1812-15), and in the First Seminole War (1817-18). His participation of signing the Treaty of Indian Springs of 1825 led to his death by a contingent of Upper Creeks led by Chief Menawa. He was given $200,000 to give up the land.
William McIntosh was also known as Tustunnuggee Hutkee ("White Warrior"), was born around 1778 in the Lower Creek town of Coweta to Captain William McIntosh who was a Scotsman of Savannah, and Senoya the mother who was a Creek woman of the Wind Clan. He was raised among the Creeks, but he spent enough time in Savannah to become fluent in English and to be able to move comfortably within both Indian and white societies.
McIntosh's participation in the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs cost him his life. According to a Creek law that McIntosh himself had supported, a sentence of death awaited any Creek leader who ceded land to the United States without the full assent of the entire Creek Nation. Just before dawn on April 30, 1825, Upper Creek chief Menawa, accompanied by 200 Creek warriors, attacked McIntosh to carry out the sentence. They set fire to his home, and shot and stabbed to death McIntosh and the elderly Coweta chief Etomme Tustunnuggee
Dahlonega Gold Rush
There are several popular stories of the beginning of Georgia's gold rush but in fact, no one is really certain who made the first discovery or when. By late 1829 north Georgia, known at the time as the Cherokee Nation, was flooded by thousands of prospectors lusting for gold.
The great majority of this multitude was directly involved in the search for gold. With pan and shovel, they roamed up and down the valleys and hollows, looking for a promising spot. These early miners were engaged in what they called "deposit" mining, generally known as placer mining. The term refers to gold that has washed down from the hillsides and collected along mountain streams. When miners found a location that showed "good color," they set up camp and began working the area in earnest. A variety of tools were used to wash these deposits and extract the fine gold particles. The river bottoms were very attractive places to search for gold; miners frequently drifted flatboats into the Chestatee and Etowah rivers and dredged up rich sand and gravel.
From the 1820s, when the syllabary became well known, until the 1960s, published accounts agreed that Sequoyah was the son of a Cherokee mother and a white father. Sequoyah nevertheless appeared to be a full-blooded Indian who remained true to the traditions of his people, never adopting white dress, religion, or other customs. He spoke no language other than Cherokee.
Impressed by the whites' ability to communicate over distances by writing, Sequoyah invented a system of eighty-four to eighty-six characters that represented syllables in spoken Cherokee. In 1821, the syllabary was quickly adopted by a large number of Cherokees, making Sequoyah the only member of an illiterate group in human history to have single-handedly devised a successful system of writing
Worcester v. Georgia
Rev Samuel Worcestr refused to sign an oath staing that a white person could not live on cherekee land witout taking an oath.
Chief Justice (Judge).
Ruled in the Worcester vs Georgia case.
Elected president of the US in 1828.
Worcester v. Georgia
These laws were passed following an agreement reached between the Cherokee tribe and the state government of Georgia. The laws instituted a prohibition of non-Indians from living in Indian territories. Only Non-Native Americans with special permission from the government were allowed to live on these lands.
The case beings when missionary Sam Worcester and his family (wife and 5 fellow missionaries) refused to move from a land that was labeled an “Indian territory.” In addition to refusing to move, the group refused to apply for the government license that would allow them to reside on the lands. Because of this refusal, the army entered the Native American lands and arrested Worcester along with the other 6 people. Following his arrest, Worcester appealed his charges and took his case to the Supreme Court.
Chief Justice John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755, near Germantown, Virginia. In 1780, Marshall started his own law practice, defending clients against pre-war British creditors. From 1782 to 1795, he held various political offices, including the position of secretary of state in 1800. In 1801, he became chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, serving until his death, on July 6, 1835, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
John Marshall ruled in the Worcester v. Georgia case that Worcester should be set free. President Andrew Jackson disagreed and ignored the order.
A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans. He was elected President of the United States in 1828. Signed the Indian removal act in 1830. He called all native Americans to be moved to western territories.
Trail of Tears
By 1840, tens of thousands of Native Americans had been driven off of their land in the southeastern states and forced to move across the Mississippi to Indian territory. The federal government promised that their new land would remain unmolested forever, but as the line of white settlement pushed westward, “Indian country” shrank and shrank. In 1907, Oklahoma became a state and Indian territory was gone for good.