The long adventures

Georgia History.

Alexander Mcgillivary

McGillivray was born in 1750 in Little Tallassee near present-day Montgomery, Alabama. Alexander McGillivray was one of many Southeastern Indians with a Native American mother and European father. He played off European powers to protect Creek interests. He was more comfortable in the colonial society of his father. Before he went to the Creek society in 1777 he had lived in Augusta. In the begining of the American Revolution (1775-83) McGillivray permanently returned to Little Tallassee when the revolutionaries removed his Tory father's property in South Carolina.

After the Revolution, McGillivray used his growing influence within Creek society to resist Georgia's attempt to remove three million acres of land and to otherwise protect what he viewed as the sovereign rights of the Creek people. He argued that Creeks had legitimate claims to their land. To these ends, in 1784 he negotiated the Treaty of Pensacola with Spain, which protected Creek rights in Florida and guaranteed access to the British trading firm. The Yazoon land fraud by Georgia and the federal government's desire to take control of Indian affairs led to U.S. president George Washington's signing of the 1790 Treaty of New York, in which the United States promised to defend Creek territorial rights.

William McIntosh

William McIntosh was a controversial chief of the Lower Creeks in early-nineteenth-century Georgia. He helped of the United States and its efforts to have the Creek territory. Many Creeks who opposed against this. He supported General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1813-14, also known as the Red Stick War and part of the larger War of 1812 conflict (1812-15), and in the First Seminole War (1817-18). His participation of signing the Treaty of Indian Springs of 1825 led to his death by a contingent of Upper Creeks led by Chief Menawa. He was given $200,000 to give up the land.

William McIntosh was also known as Tustunnuggee Hutkee ("White Warrior"), was born around 1778 in the Lower Creek town of Coweta to Captain William McIntosh who was a Scotsman of Savannah, and Senoya the mother who was a Creek woman of the Wind Clan. He was raised among the Creeks, but he spent enough time in Savannah to become fluent in English and to be able to move comfortably within both Indian and white societies.

McIntosh's participation in the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs cost him his life. According to a Creek law that McIntosh himself had supported, a sentence of death awaited any Creek leader who ceded land to the United States without the full assent of the entire Creek Nation. Just before dawn on April 30, 1825, Upper Creek chief Menawa, accompanied by 200 Creek warriors, attacked McIntosh to carry out the sentence. They set fire to his home, and shot and stabbed to death McIntosh and the elderly Coweta chief Etomme Tustunnuggee

Rosa Mejia & Paul Macharia

Dahlonega Gold Rush

There are several popular stories of the beginning of Georgia's gold rush but in fact, no one is really certain who made the first discovery or when. By late 1829 north Georgia, known at the time as the Cherokee Nation, was flooded by thousands of prospectors lusting for gold.

The great majority of this multitude was directly involved in the search for gold. With pan and shovel, they roamed up and down the valleys and hollows, looking for a promising spot. These early miners were engaged in what they called "deposit" mining, generally known as placer mining. The term refers to gold that has washed down from the hillsides and collected along mountain streams. When miners found a location that showed "good color," they set up camp and began working the area in earnest. A variety of tools were used to wash these deposits and extract the fine gold particles. The river bottoms were very attractive places to search for gold; miners frequently drifted flatboats into the Chestatee and Etowah rivers and dredged up rich sand and gravel.


Born in a village in the mountains of Tennessee, he resettled in Arkansas when tribal land along the Little Tennessee River was given to whites in the 1790s. In 1829 he moved to Indian Territory, in present-day Oklahoma. He died in Texas or Mexico while attempting to contact fellow Cherokees who had moved even farther away from unfair whites. Sequoyah visited northwest Georgia only occasionally , when he passed through or returned to advise eastern Cherokees on conditions in the West. He also traveled to teach the syllabary and to encourage its use among the far-flung members of his tribe.

From the 1820s, when the syllabary became well known, until the 1960s, published accounts agreed that Sequoyah was the son of a Cherokee mother and a white father. Sequoyah nevertheless appeared to be a full-blooded Indian who remained true to the traditions of his people, never adopting white dress, religion, or other customs. He spoke no language other than Cherokee.

Impressed by the whites' ability to communicate over distances by writing, Sequoyah invented a system of eighty-four to eighty-six characters that represented syllables in spoken Cherokee. In 1821, the syllabary was quickly adopted by a large number of Cherokees, making Sequoyah the only member of an illiterate group in human history to have single-handedly devised a successful system of writing

Worcester v. Georgia

In the 1820s and 1830s Georgia conducted a fierce campaign to remove the Cherokees, who held territory within the borders of Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, and Tennessee at the time. In 1827 the Cherokees established a constitutional government. The Cherokees were not only building their government but also declaring to the American public that they were a sovereign nation that could not be removed without their permission. An angry Georgia legislature responded by purporting to extend its jurisdiction over the Cherokees living in the state's declared boundaries. The state removed the Cherokee lands; abolished their government, courts, and laws; and established a process for took Cherokee land and distributing it to the state's white citizens. In 1830 representatives from Georgia and the other southern states pushed through Congress the Indian Removal Act, which gave U.S. president Andrew Jackson the authority to negotiate removal treaties with the Native American tribes.

These laws were passed following an agreement reached between the Cherokee tribe and the state government of Georgia. The laws instituted a prohibition of non-Indians from living in Indian territories. Only Non-Native Americans with special permission from the government were allowed to live on these lands.

The case beings when missionary Sam Worcester and his family (wife and 5 fellow missionaries) refused to move from a land that was labeled an “Indian territory.” In addition to refusing to move, the group refused to apply for the government license that would allow them to reside on the lands. Because of this refusal, the army entered the Native American lands and arrested Worcester along with the other 6 people. Following his arrest, Worcester appealed his charges and took his case to the Supreme Court.

John Marshall

Chief Justice John Marshall was born on September 24, 1755, near Germantown, Virginia. In 1780, Marshall started his own law practice, defending clients against pre-war British creditors. From 1782 to 1795, he held various political offices, including the position of secretary of state in 1800. In 1801, he became chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, serving until his death, on July 6, 1835, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

John Marshall ruled in the Worcester v. Georgia case that Worcester should be set free. President Andrew Jackson disagreed and ignored the order.

Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson was born in a backwoods settlement in the Carolinas in 1767, he received rare education. But in his late teens he read law for about two years, and he became an outstanding young lawyer in Tennessee. Fiercely jealous of his honor, he engaged in brawls, and killed a man who cast an unjustified disgrace on his wife Rachel.

A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans. He was elected President of the United States in 1828. Signed the Indian removal act in 1830. He called all native Americans to be moved to western territories.

Trail of Tears

The Indian-removal process continued. In 1836, the federal government drove the Creeks from their land for the last time: 3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks who set out for Oklahoma did not survive the trip.

By 1840, tens of thousands of Native Americans had been driven off of their land in the southeastern states and forced to move across the Mississippi to Indian territory. The federal government promised that their new land would remain unmolested forever, but as the line of white settlement pushed westward, “Indian country” shrank and shrank. In 1907, Oklahoma became a state and Indian territory was gone for good.

Trail of Tears National Historic Trail