President Eisenhower

Furnish 2: Lilian Kao

Election

Election of 1952:

Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • Republican Party
  • Running Mate: Richard Nixon
  • First presidential campaign to make an effort for female votes (Education, inflation, ending war in Korea)
  • "Korea, Communism, Corruption"
  • "I like Ike"
  • "Citizens for Eisenhower" : focused on canvassing neighborhoods and expanding GOP activist ranks
  • Won with 55% popular vote

Adlai Stevenson

  • Democratic
  • Running Mate: John Sparkman

Election of 1956:


  • Re-match of Election of 1952
  • TV ads became popular


Dwight D. Eisenhower


  • Republican Party
  • Running Mate: Richard Nixon
  • Had health problems, but he was able to run because of the television
  • Won with 57.4% popular vote


Adlai Stevenson


  • Democratic Party
  • Running Mate: Estes Kefauver
  • Campaigned for government spending on social programs
  • Proposed ending the military draft

Key Events

Cold War

  • (1945-1963
  • Tension between Western democracies and E. European communists
  • US v. Soviets fought indirectly)
  • Dien Bien Phu falls to communists; causes Geneva Conference (split Vietnam)
  • Suez Canal Crisis

McCarthy

  • Anti-communist crusader
  • Senator Joseph R. McCarthy
  • Too accusatory, little evidence
  • Eisenhower did not like him, but stayed out of his way
  • "McCarthyism" is known as the practice of making accusations of disloyalty without evidence

Desegregation

  • Jim Crow Laws ("separate but equal")
  • "Whites only" v. "Colored area"
  • 1944: An American Dilemma (Gunnar Myrdal) exposes the harsh treatment of blacks
  • Jackie Robinson broke color barrier in baseball; 1947 Brooklyn Dodgers sign
  • Sweatt v. Painter Supreme Court Case: separate black schools were not equal
  • Rosa Parks: refuses to give her seat up to whites, causes Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Rev. MLK Jr. : non violence, led black revolution
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas: segregation was unconstitutional
  • Eisenhower forced to send troops to escort nine students to class (Little Rock)
  • Civil Rights Act 1957: set Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of civil rights, protect voting rights
  • MLK Jr.: SCLC 1957
  • 1960: SNCC

Eisenhower's Republicanism

  • "Dynamic conservation"
  • Supported transfer of oil field control from Fed to State
  • Encouraged private power company to build generating plants to challenge the TVA
  • Proposed termination of Native American tribes; Dawes Severalty Act 1887
  • Interstate Highway Act 1956: $27bil. plan for 42k miles of motorway

Vietnam War

  • Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh
  • Asia became increasingly communist
  • 1954 Dien Bien Phu; Geneva Conference (split Vietnam at 17th parallel); N.Vietnam = Ho Chi Minh, S. Vietnam = Ngo Dinh Diem
  • Eisenhower promised aid to south

Space Race

  • After second Eisenhower election (1956)
  • Soviets launch Sputnik into space on October 4, 1957
  • Americans embarrassed... Eisenhower creates NASA in response