Endodontic Rotary Systems

Tooth Crowns

Dental Braces for Improving Smile

Dental braces help to improve your smile by aligning the misaligned teeth. Apart from cosmetic purposes, dental braces are also used for correcting irregularities in bites and other structural flaws of the teeth. These orthodontic tools are essential corrective instruments that work by widening the jaws, thereby helping to reposition and shape the teeth.

Although dental braces are largely worn by children and teenagers for correcting bite and improving appearance, adults who have missed the orthodontic treatment during childhood can use braces for aligning their crooked teeth. However, orthodontic treatment for adults is usually more complex and additional procedure apart from wearing dental braces may be needed for improving smile.

Types of Braces
Depending upon your orthodontic problem and budget, you can select a dental brace best suited to your need.

Metal-Wired Braces
The conventional brace designs feature metal arch wires attached to brackets. The components of the dental brace are usually made of stainless steel. In high quality braces, titanium is combined with stainless steel. The titanium braces are lighter than the stainless steel braces. They also carry a higher price tag. Titanium braces are best suited for people allergic to nickel present in stainless steel.

Clear Braces
If you want to hide your braces, you can opt for clear braces constructed with tooth-colored materials. They blend with the natural color of the teeth, thereby making the braces less conspicuous. In clear braces, tooth-colored plastic or ceramic is used for constructing the brackets and the orthodontic bands that are used for holding the brackets. Despite their cosmetic appeal, clear braces tend to be more vulnerable than the metal-wired braces.

Lingual Braces
A cosmetic alternative to the conventional metal braces, the lingual braces comprise of brackets that unlike the standard brace designs are bonded not to the front of the teeth but to the back of the teeth.

The latest mini-braces are preferred for their small size. They are lighter and less conspicuous than the conventional braces.

How Dental Braces Work
By persistently applying pressure on the teeth, dental braces help to shift the teeth gradually in a certain direction. The direction of movement is guided by the placement of the arch wires of the brace. The braces are modified every three to six weeks. In most cases, after taking off the dental braces, the patient is required to wear a retainer for a specified period to prevent the teeth from shifting to their former position.

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Types of Dental Film

Dental radiography is the quintessential diagnosis tool for a dentist. The dental X-rays help to determine the condition of the teeth, the bones surrounding them, the tooth root and the jawbone. The underlying dental problem helps to determine the type of dental x-ray that is most appropriate for diagnosis. The features of the dental film used for taking the X-ray image also vary according to the dental X-ray technique.

To take a dental radiographic image, an area of the mouth is exposed to the X-rays that penetrate different oral structures before striking the dental X-ray film. The composition and features of dental X-ray films are similar to that of the standard X-ray films used for taking radiographic images of different parts of the body. However, the size and thickness of the X-ray film are determined by the dental radiography procedure.

Features of Dental Film
A dental X-ray film comprises of a strong base made of polyester or cellulose triacetate to which a layer of gelatin emulsion containing light sensitive grains are attached with the help of adhesive. The silver halide crystals that form the photosensitive part of the photographic emulsion capture the electrons that strike the film. The film is then processed to produce the radiographic image of a specified area of the mouth.

Types of Dental Films

X-Ray Films for Intraoral X-Rays
Dental radiography for detecting the health and condition of the tooth root and the bones that support the tooth is known as intraoral X-rays. This is the most common form of dental X-rays used for assessing the overall health of the teeth. For taking intraoral radiographic images, a dental X-ray film is placed inside the mouth.

Periapical X-rays help to capture the image of the whole tooth from the crown to the end of the tooth root. Bite wing X-rays help in detecting changes in the bone density and decay between teeth. It provides a detailed image of the anterior or posterior teeth in a certain part of the mouth. The entire tooth and its placement are revealed through occlusal X-rays. Dental X-ray film types 0, 1 and 2 are used in periapical X-rays. Dental film types 0, 1, 2 and 3 are used in bite-wing X-rays. Thicker and larger type 4 dental X-ray films are used in occlusal X-rays.

X-Ray Films for Extraoral X-rays
Extraoral X-rays help in detecting impacted teeth, tumors and disorders in the jaw or other facial bones. Panoramic films are used for capturing the X-ray images of the entire mouth.

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Types of Impression Trays

Dental impression trays are needed for taking imprints of the soft tissues or teeth for making dentures or maxillofacial prosthetics. It comprises of a tray that fits comfortably to the upper or lower gums or teeth. The tray contains a viscous material that covers the dental arch. The material sets to form an elastic mass, which is used for developing the dental cast.

The impression material containing the impression of the dentition is then transferred to a dental laboratory where it is processed. Apart from making dentures, dental casts are needed for manufacturing crowns, veneers, bridges, mouth guards and abutments for dental implants.

Importance of Impression Trays

Without creating an accurate impression of the dentition, you cannot develop dentures that closely resemble the real teeth and fit comfortably in the gum. Hence, using an appropriate impression tray for taking the imprint of the teeth and soft tissues is a prerequisite for a satisfactory restoration work.

Types of Impression Trays

Stock Trays

Stock trays are widely used for taking the primary impression of the teeth and gum. They are made of plastic or metal. Polystyrene and nylon are usually used for constructing the disposable plastic trays. The reusable metal stock trays, although expensive than the disposable impression trays, produce better dentition impressions. The rigidity of the metal trays helps to hold the impression material firmly in place, thereby enabling production of a more accurate impression. To take an accurate impression with a stock tray, the teeth should be fitted properly in the middle of the trough of the tray. These trays come in different sizes. Depending upon the size of the dental arch, you can select a large, medium or small impression tray. Impression materials commonly added to the impression trays include silicones, sodium alginate and polyether.

Custom Trays

Custom trays are ideal for complicated denture works. Acrylic and shellac are used for constructing these special trays. Compared with stock trays, it takes a shorter time to capture an impression with a custom tray. They are rigid and adjustable. They can be customized to fit comfortably to the dental arch of the patient. Custom trays can be designed in the dental laboratory or they can be easily manufactured at the chair side. These impress

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How to Select X-ray Film

Electromagnetic radiations with wavelength from 0.01 to 10 nanometers are known as x-rays. Due to their ability to penetrate skin and flesh, x-rays are used in medical imaging. X-ray films, used as mediums for recording images, are highly sensitive to the X-radiations. They detect the high energy X-rays that pass through the patient when a certain part of the patient’s body is exposed to the radiation.

An X-ray film used in medical imaging comprises of emulsions of gelatin and silver halide crystals. Both sides of the film are coated with the emulsion. The thickness of the emulsion layer affects the quality of the X-ray image. The maximum thickness of an X-ray film emulsion is 10mm.

Features of an X-Ray Film

The gelatin used in X-rays film emulsion is sourced from bone. It acts as a suspension medium. Besides inhibiting clumping of the photosensitive crystals during the imaging process, gelatin also eases penetration of chemicals during processing of the film. The emulsion is attached to the film base with the help of an adhesive. The film base is usually made of polyester, cellulose triacetate, cellulose nitrate or glass. The base material should be strong enough to retain the strength and structure of the film during imaging and processing.

Tiny crystals or grains of light sensitive silver halide are suspended in the gelatin emulsion of the film. Silver bromide and silver iodide are the main constituents of silver halide. To boost the sensitivity of the silver halide grains, the emulsion is heated with a sulfur-based reducing agent under controlled condition. Silver sulfide produced because of the reaction traps electrons to form images. To increase the speed of the film, emulsions are applied on both the sides of the x-ray film.

How to Select an X-Ray Film

The X-ray film appropriate for a particular radiography-imaging requirement is governed by various factors. Usually the composition, location, shape, size and weight of the part to be examined are taken into account while selecting an X-ray film. To obtain the maximum detail of a specific part of the body, X-films that are coated with the emulsion only on one side are used for imaging. Films with thin emulsion can be processed in a short time. Hence, they help in quick diagnosis. Fine-grained slower films are ideally suited for obtaining high-resolution images. The type of x-ray equipment used in the imaging process plays a key role in selecting a suitable x-ray film.

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