PERIOD 2: 1607-1754
Grant Dixon - January 2016
The New England Colonies
- Massachusetts (originally founded as the Plymouth Colony in 1620) was later established by the Puritans in 1630 (royal)
- Connecticut formed by Thomas Hooker in 1636 (corporate)
- Rhode Island founded by Roger Williams in 1636 (corporate)
- New Hampshire established in 1638 (royal)
The Mid-Atlantic or Middle Colonies
- Delaware formed by Peter Minuit in 1638 (proprietary)
- New Jersey founded in 1664 by Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret (royal)
- New York founded in 1664 by the Duke of York (royal)
- Pennsylvania established by William Penn in 1682 (proprietary)
The Southern Colonies
- Virginia established in 1607 (royal)
- Maryland established in 1633 (proprietary)
- North Carolina established separate from SC in 1653 (royal)
- South Carolina is formed in 1663, 10 years later following Carolina's separation (royal)
- Georgia, the final colony, was formed in 1733 by George Oglethorpe (royal)
MERCANTALISM AND THE GROWING EMPIRE
- With the drastically expanding economy of the colonies, the English government enforced (loosely) the Navigation Acts, which established three main rules:
- trade within the colonies would require the use of British or colonial ships
- all (excluding perishable goods) had to first pass through English ports
- and enumerated or certain goods could only be exported to England
The Dominion of New England
- To increase the royal control over the expanding colonies in North America, James II joined the colonies of New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, into one individual unit. Edmund Andros was granted political leadership over the dominion by the king as well.
- In response, uprisings lead to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, thus overthrowing the power of King James, ending the Dominion of New England.
To escape religious persecution in England, the separatists, or the pilgrims, founded the colony of Plymouth in search of religious freedom.
In order to allow for the mother country, England, to thrive economically, the theory of mercantilism was initialized, providing Greenland with raw materials and goods from the North American colonies.