Spain's Physical Geography

By Julia Sircar. Becky Parker, and Peyton Chun


Because Spain is not located at an extreme location such as the poles or the equator, it exhibits all four seasons. The summer months are June to September and are the hottest months of the year. The winter months are December to March and are the coldest months of the year. The other months are spring and autumn, both of which have mild and fairly constant temperatures. Seasons are caused because of the Earth’s tilted axis. When the earth’s axis points towards the sun, it is summer for the region the sun is facing. When the earth’s axis points away from the sun, it is winter for the region facing away from the sun. Spring and Fall are when the earth’s axis is in between the winter stage and summer stage.

10 Land/Water Forms

    • Volcano- A volcano is a vent to the area of magma underneath the earth’s crust where magma may spew out. When two plate tectonics collide together, one goes under the other to form the tall landform

    • River- When rain fall on top of a mountain and the water flows down the side, a groove is formed. Over time the groove gets wider and wider and a river will form

    • Mountain- Plate tectonics (pieces of the earth) collide and move upwards

    • Island-

    • Ocean- When the earth was first formed, it rained for thousands and thousands of years, forming the oceans.

    • Valley- When two mountains are next to each other, the low space in between them is a valley

    • Canyon- Canyons are carved out by rivers. There is harder rock on either side of the carved out space while the softer rock is eroded away.

    • Delta- When a river flows into an ocean, the water currents move around the sand particles and sediments creating a fan shaped area.

    • Wetland- A wetland is formed when there is a low lying piece of land that gets filled partly with water and creates a soft, marshy environment.


Climate types in Spain include continental, maritime and mediterranean. Most of Spain exhibits a continental climate, which has little rainfall and a high temperature range. This climate is found in the areas not bordered by a body of water. Because of this, the temperature range is higher because land heats and cools faster than water.

The maritime climate exists in the northern part of the country, near the Pyrenees and there are mild summers and winters, not a large temperature range. This is because of the Atlantic Ocean. The humidity is also high because of the sea breeze.

The southeastern part of Spain that borders the Mediterranean Sea exhibits a mediterranean climate. It is characterized by high temperatures, low humidity and very little rainfall.


Spain is located in the deciduous forest biome and a chaparral biome. The deciduous forest biome is in the mild temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. They have mild summers averaging about 70 °F. Summer months usually begin in early June and end in late August. Winter months don't begin until December. Winter temperatures are fairly cool with an average temperature of a little below freezing. Almost all of the world's deciduous forest is located by an ocean. The ocean and the wind are two big factors of why the temperature and climate change so much in this biome.

Natural Disasters

Earthquakes - Earthquakes have happened in the Iberian Peninsula and other places in Spain. They are caused by a two tectonic plates on a fault line creating seismic waves.

Hurricanes - Many hurricanes and tropical storms affect the Canary Islands because they are an archipelago in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Hurricanes are caused by heat gathers from the warmth of sea waters. Evaporation increases these storms strength.


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