Standard 12 History Project

Objective #1

The abolitionist society established by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush was called the Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society. They wanted to abolish slavery and to free the African Americans being held illegally under slavery. William Lloyd Garrison, a critic of slavery, wrote a newspaper called The Liberator to inspire people to stand against slavery. Frederick Douglass was born into slavery, but he escaped and wrote biographies to encourage others to stand against slavery. Sojourner Truth also spoke against slavery and toured with other abolitionists. Angelina and Sarah Grimke were some of the first women to argue about the issue of slavery. Henry David Thoreau also spoke against slavery in many of his works like Slavery In Massachusetts. Charles Summer was elected as the U.S. senator, where he protested against slavery.


http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p249.html

http://www.biography.com/people/william-lloyd-garrison-9307251

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/frederick-douglass

http://www.biography.com/people/sojourner-truth-9511284#fighting-for-abolition-and-womens-rights

http://www.biography.com/people/sarah-moore-grimk-9321349

http://www.biography.com/people/henry-david-thoreau-9506784#later-years

http://www.history.com/topics/charles-sumner

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Objective #2

The idea of opposition to slavery was influenced by a movement called The Second Great Awakening. Many preachers like Nathaniel Taylor and Lyman Beecher led large revivals that influenced the idea of opposition to slavery. William Lloyd Garrison and Theodore D. Weld were inspired to stand up for immediate emancipation. A group called the Quakers also influenced the idea of opposition to slavery. They played a big role in the education and political movements of those in slavery. The Quakers were against the slave trade and the idea of slavery.


http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/abolitionist-movement

http://trilogy.brynmawr.edu/speccoll/quakersandslavery/

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Objective #3

The Northwest Ordinance established that the western part of the U.S. should be separate, and the other states should not expand. Many states agreed that slavery should be banned in the Northwest part of the U.S. It was banned in the Northwest part of the United States, which made the Ohio River a dividing line. This was the first law to prohibit the expansion of slavery.


https://www.americanhistoryusa.com/northwest-ordinance-1787-effects/

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h365.html

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Objective #4

The Underground Railroad was established to help slaves in North America to escape from slavery. It went through places such as: Missouri, Tennessee, and Kentucky. There are many people who guided the slaves through the railroad. The most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman. She led about 300 slaves out of slavery adapting her nickname "Moses."

Thomas Garrett was another conductor, and he led out 2,700 slaves out of slavery. One of the most famous authors was Harriet Beecher Stowe. She wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin which showed why slaves should be freed from slavery. It would also later influence the Civil War.


http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/Archives/fall03/gillhere/Site/whoinUR.html

http://trilogy.brynmawr.edu/speccoll/quakersandslavery/commentary/people/garrett.php

http://www.biography.com/news/uncle-toms-cabin-harriet-beecher-stowe

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