Psychologists&Theories

Jaidyn, Jean, Nicole, Shreya, Luis, Ashlyn and Naveed

Carl Rogers

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  • American psychologist (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987)

  • One of the founders of the humanistic approach (client-centered approach) to psychology

  • One of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research

  • Honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (1956)

  • Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize

  • 6th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century


Theory of personal development

Everyone has the inherent tendency to continually grow and develop. Because of this, one’s self-esteem and self-actualization (fulfilling one’s potential) is continually influenced.

In order to grow, people need to feel accepted, appreciated, understood, and heard

Rogers Theory was considered “people-centered” for its expansion beyond psychotherapy and into fields including education, marriage, leadership, parent-child relationships, and the development of professional standards.


In therapy, Rogers practiced “unconditional positive regard” which he believed would help patients/clients to achieve total self-actualization. (Unconditional positive regard: complete acceptance of the patient)

The Self Concept

“the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself"

Those raised in environments full of unconditional positive regard will have the ability to fully actualize themselves. Those raised in environments of conditional positive regard feel worthy only if they match that have been laid down for them by others.


self worth, self-image, and ideal self

Self-actualized individuals are called fully functioning persons. The five characteristics of a fully functioning person are:


Open to experience: accepting of both positive and negative emotions

Existential living: living life to the fullest, living in the moment, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions

Trust feelings: trusting instincts and one’s own feelings (instead of always believing what others say)

Creativity: thinking creatively and taking risks (adjusting to change and seeking new experiences)

Fulfilled life: being happy and satisfied with life



Karen Horney

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  • best known for: feminine psychology, theory of neurotic needs, non-Freudian needs

  • German psychoanalyst (September 16, 1885-December 4, 1952).

  • Her parents were divorced, her father preferred her brother over her and at age nine, she developed a crush on her brother and he turned away and this led to Horney’s depression which had an effect for the rest of her life.

  • She decided to explore psychoanalysis when her mother Sonni died in 1911.

  • She began to take patients for analysis in 1919 and worked at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Clinic and Institute until 1932. During this year she joined Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis.


  • She published papers in the 1920s which described the topic of orthodox Freudians, especially with psychosexuality.

  • She became even more depressed when her husband developed meningitis and his business shut down and when her brother passed away. She moved to the U.S after that.

  • developed theories in 1930 about the importance of sociocultural factors in human development.

  • wrote a book called The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (1937) and focus on ideas of neuroses, brought about by cultural factors.Also, how neuroses was based on the disturbances in human relationships.

  • neuroses- Any of various mental or emotional disorders, such as hypochondria or neurasthenia, arising from no apparent organic lesion or change and involving symptoms such as insecurity, anxiety, depression, and irrational fears, but without psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. No longer in scientific use.

  • After this, she went away from the orthodox Freudians views and established ideas with other prominent psychoanalysts in 1941 which was the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis.

  • wrote a book, Self Analysis (1942)

  • these ideas relate to her own personal experiences

  • also wrote Our Inner Conflicts (1945) and Neurosis and Human Growth (1950). She discussed ideas about pride and defense strategies

  • She practiced, taught, and wrote until her death at age 67 in 1952.

Theory

  • Horney’s theory is related to her personal life and how she was able to deal with her problems. She believed that neurosis was not a condition, rather a process which occurred throughout one’s life. Although she disagreed with her contemporaries about neurosis, she did agree with them with regard to childhood influences. She theorized that a person’s neurosis is a result of their childhood perceptions of their own parents. Horney categorized ten basic needs that she believed were essential for someone to succeed. She grouped them into three types of needs:


  1. Compliance Needs

  2. Aggression Needs

  3. Attachment Needs


Alfred Adler

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  • Born February 7, 1870

  • 1870-1937

  • Often ill as a child. Suffered from rickets and almost died from pneumonia. Drove him to be a Physician

  • Graduated from University of Vienna in 1895

  • Had many circus performer patients, their strengths and weaknesses influenced his organ inferiority theory

  • Went into the field of psychiatry in 1907 when he joined Freud’s discussion groups.

  • Wrote a paper on aggression instinct. Freud did not approve.

  • Wrote a paper on children inferiority. Freud approved.

  • Freud made Adler president of Viennese Analytic Society co- editor of organization newsletter

  • Austrian physician during WWI

  • Moved his family to the US in 1926.

  • Died of heart attack while giving lectures at Aberdeen University in Scotland

Theory

  • Best known for The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology, which he wrote in 1923.

  • Often changed his theory on personality throughout his life but mainly and constantly believed that people focus n maintaining control over their lives.

  • Studied personality at the same time as Jung and Freud.

  • The three worked on theories together until Adler did not approve Freuds emphasis on sex. He stuck to personality difficulties come in a feeling of inferiority coming from restriction on the individuals needs for self-assertion

  • Believed in single “drive”/ motivating force behind our actions and claimed our desire to fulfill potentials becomes close to our ideals

  • Created Individual Psychology theory because he felt that no theory applied to all people

  • Individual Theory:

    • development of personality

    • striving towards superiority

    • psychological health

    • unity of personality


Carl Jung

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  • Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the school of analytical psychology. He proposed and developed the concepts of the extroverted and introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious.

  • The issues that he dealt with arose from his personal experiences.

  • For many years Jung felt as if he had two separate personalities. One introverted and other extroverted. This interplay resulted in his study of integration and wholeness.

  • His work has been influential not only in psychology, but in religion and literature as well.

  • Jung was born on July 26, 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland, the only son of a Protestant clergyman.

  • His childhood was a lonely one. Jung observed his parents and teachers and tried to understand their behavior, especially that of his father. The elder Jung had a failing belief in religion.

  • Before deciding to pursue medicine Jung studied biology, zoology, paleontology, and archaeology. His explorations did not stop with that, he looked at philosophy, mythology, early Christian literature as well as religion. His interest in religion could be attributed to his heritage as well as watching the demise of his father.

  • In 1902 he obtained his M.D. from the University of Zurich. His dissertation was entitled "On the Psychology and Pathology of So -Called Occult Phenomena".

  • Jung's first research was conducted in 1904. He studied word association in patients.

  • This study brought him close to the work of Sigmund Freud. Jung's work confirmed many of Freud's ideas. Between 1907 and 1912 he and Freud worked very close. Many believed that Jung would continue Freud's psychoanalysis, but this did not occur.

  • Jung contested Freud's analytic principles, which he claimed were one-sided, overly-concrete, and personalistic. Their relationship was finished forever when Jung published "Psychology and the Unconscious" which argued against some of Freud's ideas

  • After a break with the start of WWI, Jung wrote the book "Psychological Types". It set the differences between his position and that of Freud. Jung became more interested in the study of mythological and religious symbolism. His studies took him across the globe where he observed many different cultures.

  • He was interested in tracing the analogies between the contents of the unconscious in Western man and the myths, cults, and rituals of primitive peoples.

  • Jungian therapy deals with dreams and fantasies.

  • A discussion is set up between the conscious and the contents of the unconscious.

  • When the therapy works the patient enters an individuation process. This consists of psychological transformations ending in the opposite tendencies working together to achieve personal wholeness. Jung's total amount of work is very large.

  • It is estimated that he authored 200 papers.

  • While Jungian theory has numerous critics, Carl Jung's work left a notable impact on psychology. His concepts of introversion and extraversion have contributed to personality psychology and also influenced psychotherapy.

  • His advice to a patient suffering from alcoholism led to the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, which has helped millions of people suffering from alcohol dependence.