All You Need To Know Newspaper

All you need to know about whats happening in America

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Mountain Men

The mountain men were alone and trapping small animals such as beavers. Mountain men did survive by being resourceful and obtain furs to make the men’s hats that are now in nice fit. And just yesterday William Henry and Ashley created a trading arrangement called Rendezvous System. The trappers bought some supplies that they would need from the traders mostly ever summer from year 2001 to 2014.In the year silk hats replaced beaver hats as fashion and the partrades would die out. And instead they were connected economically to the businessmen who bought their owns furs.

The Pacific Ocean and set traps in icy mountain streams Jeddah smith and Jim Beckwourth because famous as rigged. The pacific ocean,and set up some traps in the icy mountains streams. Man facervers and merchants soon did followed the settlers West. They had to own money to get things and they had to find good jobs to earn money. The land was away from the native Americans had inhabited this territory.and they had to follow settlers who dreamed of there own farms.

Why people moved West

The few of the people who went west Shares to the smith’s noble motive, People called Land speculators that brought huge areas of land. Other people made the trip to find more jobs or to try to do was escape the people to whom they would own some money.They did great profits by selling those sections to the thousands of all settlers who did dremel of owning their own farmers that they would need. Some Americans wanted to take the land away from the Native Americans that who raised this territory. To speculate means to buy things in the west and the money will increase in value.

Santa Fe Trail

Traders did travel to the west in search of markets. After the mexico gained independence from spain in 1821,it open its borders to American traders,whom spain had kept out. The response,the Missani trader William Becknell set out with hardwire,cloth and china for Santa Fe,capital of the mexican province of the New mexico. So when Becknell headed to Sarte Fe again this time he loaded his trade some goods into covered wagons,which what westerners called prairie schooners. The Santa Fe did instead found a cutoff,a shortcut that avoided steep slopes but pushed through a deadly desert to the south . Bernell return home with another huge profit.

Oregon trail

Hundreds of settlers also began migrating west on the oregon trails which they ran from Independence, missouri to oregon territory. Well the first whites to cross the continent to oregon where missionaries such as marcus and Narcissa whitman did yesterday in 1836. At the time the United states and Britain were located in an argument about which country owns oregon. Wheat grew as tall as men. And the oregon Fever has broken out observed a Boston news paper and is now raging.

In 1843 nearly 1,000 people travel from Missouri to oregon. Such stonies tempted many people to make the 2,000-mile Journey to oregon. However their glowing reports of Oregon’s rich land began to attract other American settlers. The sun always shone there. One of the tale claimed that pigs were running about rounding and fat and milk cooked with knoles and forks trkin in them so they can cut off asics whenever you are hungry

Mormon trail

The Mormons were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. This is church was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. They were persecuted by other religions because of their belief of polygamy (allowing a man to have more than one wife at a time). For this reason an anti-Mormon mob killed Joseph Smith. The new leader, Brigham Young, took the Mormons to Utah. They partly followed the famous Oregon trail and built a settlement near the Great Salt Lake. He thinks that he can now be left to follow their faith in peace. Through their hard work they made that dessert boom.

Intro for Texas revolution and War with Mexico

Just yesterday Moses Austin started a new colony in Texas. He must follow all spanish rules, and you will too if you decide to live there. Texas has rich soil for farming so you will make a profit off of it. Texas also has many forests for all you trappers. The native Tejanos are trying to drive the indians off Texan land. If you decide to stay for the war you will be awarded land depending on how long you stay. Remember, the longer you stay and fight the more land you get!

Problems with Mexico and Spain

Spain has been trying to get settlers to live there for months now but why won't anyone go? One of the many reasons for the fertile land to stay bare from any settlers may be because of the many Indian tribes that live there. Others may be afraid of being taken over by other foreign forces. Texas is fertile and full of good land but no one seems to want it. All except for Stephen Austin who bought a large amount of land and started a colony. What will happen to Austin and his land? Who knows but lets hope for the best.

Texas Gains Independence

JUST IN!!! Its 1821 and Texas has finally broken away from spain. After months and months of fighting and debating Texas is finally a free territory. But what will happen to it now? We are currently debating if we should make it a true state or if it will stay it’s own independant territory. All we know for sure it that Texas is finally free of Spanish rule.

Good news everybody! Stephen Austin has attracted 297 families to his land. They must be members of the Roman Catholic Church and all must be hardworking and moral. The success of the land is sure to bring many new settlers into the area. many people are coming here for the wondrous land and new opportunities. But some are coming here to escape from the law. what will become of this beautiful land. and what will become of the settlers who live here.

Manifest Destiny

America had an abundance of land on the West side. Though they were populated by Native Americans and Mexicans the lands were viewed unoccupied by white people. They were worried about settling because of the competition with other nations. Most of Oregon was owned by Mexicans and some was owned by Britain. John O’Sullivan wrote in a newsletter that our manifest destiny suggested that are expansion was bound to happen, even if we have to push out the Mexicans and Native Americans. James Knox Polk made an agreement with Britain to divide Oregon at the 49th parallel.

War with Mexico

In news about the continuing problems with mexico, we had stationed troops on the border of the rio grande river. Mexican troops attacked our soldiers which has lead to conflict. Congress has declared war on the mexicans for this act of violence against the US. Some representatives are questioning the act of war against mexico such as Abraham Lincoln from Illinois. Some debates are arguing over if we gained new land the new territories would become more slave states. What will become of this war? We’ll find out.

According to our sources an important treaty has been signed. Read on to find out more. Antislavery representatives proposed a bill to ban slavery from all land taken from mexico. But still, even after being told not to go to war we still went in head first. Some people think the war will be quick and it will be easy to defeat the mexicans. It’s May 1846, and America is once again going to war.

It’s not long into the war and General Stephen Kearny has led troops to fort leavenworth to occupy New Mexico. He has convinced the natives of the area to retreat out of their land. Then he moved straight to California with a portion of his soldiers.

Manifest Destiny

On February 2nd, the war officially ended. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave up California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of New Mexico to the U.S. In forgiveness they agreed to pay Mexico 15 million, they would pay them 3.25 million of claims U.S citizens had against Mexico. We also agreed to protect them. But all of this ended up making Mexicans Minorities. They thought the language, culture, and legal system was weird. Also they made America better by teaching new settlers how to develop the land for farming, ranching, and mining.

Conclusion to Texas Revolution

What will become of america now? Will we continue to gain land or will it be taken back? No one knows but we are sure of one thing. The United States of America will continue to expand and prosper. Until we can no longer gain more land the US will keep on growing.

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Before the Gold rush

Before gold was discovered in California the population was large in people and size. 150,000 Natives, 8,000-12,000 California's peoples are Spanish or Mexican settlers, but there was one important settler name is Mariano Vallejo. Vallejo owns 250,000 acres of land. He has been the commander of the Northern California when it belonged to Mexico. Another famous settler his name is John Sutter, a Swiss immigrant. He dressed in a second hand french army uniform and visited the governor and got granted 50,000 acres, in an unsettled area called Sacramento. Sutter had a dream to have a empire in that land, so he built a fort on the land. He later hired a carpenter named James Marshall to have him build a sawmill, when the sawmill was working James later discovered gold in the water by the mill. Which starts the rush to gold and riches.

California finds Gold

When James Marshall found that piece of gold in that stream,people all over the world flocked to California to find gold was called the California gold rush. It was called this because a flock of large numbers of people to find the gold, where it has been found. When people started coming a lot of them knew gold was scarce and hard to find gold was rare. And sense James Marshall found it everybody thought they could get lucky and become rich. It opened a whole new door. But then when miners were digging they were finding gold in different places, like the Sierra Nevada Mountains streams.

But the journeys to California were dangerous and life threatening as well, these 49nr’s have 3 tough paths to get California and become rich with gold. The first path is travel 18,000 miles around South America, and up the Pacific Ocean. The consequences are storms,sea sickness, and spoiled food. The second choice was to sail through narrow Isthmus of Panama, then cross over land. The risk was getting a deadly tropical disease,and sailing to California like that. The last one is travel across North America going over rivers,prairies,mountains, and the handful of trails .

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Life and conflicts of miners

The miners are the most important people to worry about because they risk their lives to find gold. These mining camps had colorful names for example mad mule, Gulch,Hangtown, and coyote piggings. Some or your can say a lot of these camps had a lot of dangerous places and things.Murders, mobs,whippings, fatal accidents, and hangings. But the life as a miner was hard because of camp gossip because if you tried to steal gold everybody would know. And spending your days in the cold water going through mud to find gold. Problems exhaustion,poor food, and disease messed with miners health. Also miners paid a lot for basic supplies and lost more because of gamblers and scam artist. Out of that happening few miners became rich.

Conflict between miners

Conflict was coming along like greed, anger, and prejudice caused some miners to cheat other people. One person who did that was I.B. Gilman, he made a promise to slave named tom. Gilman telling tom if he makes 1,000 dollars out of finding gold he would let him go. So tom worked, worked and worked until finally he made the 1,000 dollars to give to Gilman to be free. He got the papers but the next day was missing he knew he was robbed, but couldn't prove it so he had a work one more year to be free. American miners began to force natives,Mexicans, and Chinese out of the fields to reduce competition . This was practice later to increased after California became a state in the year of 1850. The first act was made for foreign miners pay 20 dollars a month to mine. Later Chinese shops and restaurants, laundries. So many called it Chinatown.

There might have been conflict and danger in in the mining camps, but these mining camps were not your same old people you see everyday. These camps were very diverse from white men from New England however native americans,free blacks,and enslaved african americans. These mining camps opened up a door to the world saying come mine and find gold,and you will become rich. Wait there is more experienced miners from Mexico, Europe,south America,Australia,and China. These chinese people left from bad crops and soil in China, and with more of them coming by 1851 by one of every ten immigrants were chinense. They took over the sites where americans abandoned them because couldn't find easy gold. The Chinese were making those fields yield profits by being patient miners, but the americans were suspicious because how what they eat, and dress. But while more Chinese people the more Americans got mad.

Impact of Gold Rush

The impact of the Gold Rush was huge for California in many ways. While it lasted, it brought about 250,000 to California. This led to economic growth in California, especially in the port city of San Francisco. In 5 years the population grew from 400 to 35,000. Though it is not all great news for the Mexicans and Native Americans. Americans seized property of Mariano Vallejo’s huge estate and all he had left was 300 acres. Native Americans were hit by it even harder. Thousands of them died because of the disease brought by the newcomers. Miners killed thousands because of the Anglo-American belief that the Native Americans stood in the way of their progress. The Native American population dropped from 150,000 to 58,000.

Another impact was that California had enough people to apply for statehood. They applied to the Union and was permitted as a free state in 1850. Although is was a free state African Americans did not have the right to vote. California helped slave people all around. For example, Nancy Gooch earned her freedom by moving to California. Eventually she got enough money to buy her children out of slavery.

Reasons for Immigration

In desperate of freedom, economic opportunities, and land, we are starting to emigrate to the United States. Even through the rough conditions like leaving family, and our whole lives behind we want and need some change. The only things that we can bring with us are what we can fit in a tiny trunk. Most of us are emigrating on steerage, which are the smallest decks on a ship. But, a lot of us that are emigrating are getting ill and are dying from other emigrants in the steerage. Emigrating takes a long time, you have to stay in the steerage for almost a month. People from all over like Scandinavia, Germany, Britain, and Ireland are coming to the U.S.

One of the factors pushing us to emigrate is population growth, Europe's population is growing which is causing us to leave. Agriculture changes in Europe, its cities are growing which pushes us off farming lands. Crop failures are making some farmers want a new start in America after bad harvests. The new factories and jobs pushed us out, and so did religious and political turmoil. Now Germans, Jews and Quakers are coming because of the revolution and Quaker are being persecuted.

German and Scandinavian Immigration

Just yesterday the Swedish government put a law out that was illegal to emigrate to stop them, but the scandinavians canceled the law. Scandinavians are now emigrating to America because of the lowered land prices, which are now $1.25 an acre. The government and even clergymen are trying to stop the madness and make them stay. The scandinavians are moving more in the Midwest like Wisconsin and Minnesota. They want land familiar to their old homeland, most are starting new lives as farmers.

Germans are also coming to the Americas over the craze for cheap land. Unlike Scandinavians the Germans just want land thats good for crops, and have Bishops that are German. The Germans are also settling in the Midwest like Texas and Wisconsin, which is suitable for their traditional crop, oats. Most of Germans, same as Scandinavians are becoming farmers. Germans are becoming a big part of our lives, they are creating new jobs and bringing them over to the U.S. like carpenters, shoemakers, tailors butchers, printers, and bakers. Not only the jobs, but the religion too like putting up Christmas trees, hamburgers, and kindergartens so they are making a big influence on our lives.

Irish Immigration

Since last week Ireland has been in big famine, which is when you have very little food, and the poverty from rule of Britain. Many Ireland immigrants, over two million, are arriving to the U.S, but with very little skills and money. The Irish Catholics that emigrated were under strict rules, they can’t vote, own land, hold office, or even go to school. Unfortunately we also don't have many jobs for their so they have to take the littlest jobs we offer like washing clothes, servants, and building canals. They can’t even afford houses, they are so poor, some of them live in tiny little huts. Ireland immigrants and blacks are competing for jobs because of their little skill and money. And they are now arriving in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.

Cities after Immigration

Since last week Ireland has been in big famine, which is when you have very little food, and the poverty from rule of Britain. Many Ireland immigrants, over two million, are arriving to the U.S, but with very little skills and money. The Irish Catholics that emigrated were under strict rules, they can’t vote, own land, hold office, or even go to school. Unfortunately we also don't have many jobs for their so they have to take the littlest jobs we offer like washing clothes, servants, and building canals. They can’t even afford houses, they are so poor, some of them live in tiny little huts. Ireland immigrants and blacks are competing for jobs because of their little skill and money. And they are now arriving in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.

Opposition of Immigration

Americans feared immigrants in many ways. Some feared that they were to foreign and cannot learn American ways. Some others feared that they will out number the natives. Because of this immigrants faced prejudice (negative opinion that is not based on facts). There were even people that tried to eliminate foreign influence and they were called nativists. Some even refused to hire immigrants and put up signs like “No Irish need apply”. They even went as far as starting a political party called the KnowNothing Party. It’s purpose was to ban Catholics and the foreign-born from holding office. They disappeared quickly as a national party.

Impact of Religion

The renewal of religious faith in the 1700s and early 1800s is called the Second Great Awakening. this was appealed to equality-loving Americans as revivals spread across the frontier .many settlers eagerly awaited the visits of preachers like Peter Cartwright and Charles Grandison Finney held large revival meetings many of these led people to help one another and such teachings helped awaken a spirit of reform. soon they believed that they could act to make things better

Improving society and workers rights

Led by churches some Americans began the temperance movement which is

a campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol. because Heavy Drinking was very

common in the early 1800s some the workers spent most of their wages on alcohol

thus leaving their families without enough money to live on so as a result women

joined the temperance movement some temperance workers handed out pamphlets

urging people to stop drinking while others produced dramas like the drunkard.

in addition temperance speakers traveled widely, asking people to sign a pledge

to stop drinking and by 1838 a million people had signed soon temperance won the

support of business owners because industry needed workers who could keep

schedules and run machines due to alcohol making it hard for workers to do either and soon

States made laws banning alcohol but most were repealed but the movement to

ban alcohol remained strong.

As many business owners try to improve workers habits workers called for improvements in working conditions like factory work being noisy,boring, and unsafe. soon young women mill workers in Lowell,Massachusetts begin a labor union which is a group of workers who band together to seek better working conditions. and about 1,500 women went on strike and stopped working to demand better working conditions with 11 year old Harriet Hanson who helped lead the strikes and while some wanted better working conditions others wanted shorter hours and higher wages by 1835 and 1836, 140 strikes took place in eastern United States soon the panic of 1837 began and brought hard times jobs were scarce, and workers were afraid to cause trouble then the young labor movement fell apart but still workers achieved a few goals like when president Martin Van Buren ordered a ten-hour workday for government workers

Improving education and help for the needy

In the 1830s Americans began to demand better schools in 1837 massachusetts

set up the first state board of education in the United States and it’s Horace Mann by

1850 many northern states have began opening public elementary schools boston

also opened the first public high school in 1821 soon other northern cities followed suit

and in addition churches,and other groups founded hundreds of private colleges in the

following decades and many were from the northern states like antioch and oberlin

colleges in ohio.

Many women could not attend most colleges but one exception was oberlin and it was the first college to accept women as well as men and in 1849 an english immigrant

named Elizabeth blackwell became the first women to earn a medical degree in

the United states African Americans also faced obstacles to getting a education

which was true especially in the south teaching an enslaved person to read and write

was illegal and even in the north most public barred African American children

and few colleges accepted African Americans but in 1823 Alexander Twilight became the

first African American to receive college degree also John Russwurm received one

in 1826 and later began the first African American newspaper and while some people

promoted education others tried to improve society’s care for it’s weakest members

in 1841 a person named Dorothea Dix discovered some women who were locked

up in cold, filthy cells simply because they were mentally ill and while visiting other jails

she learned that the mentally ill received no treatment instead they were beaten and chained

so she pleaded with the massachusetts legislature to improve care for the mentally ill

and eventually her efforts led to the building of 32 new hospitals soon others tried to

help the mentally ill like Thomas H. Gallaudet started the first American school for

deaf children and Samuel G. Howe founded the perkins school for the blind

and others tried to improve on prisons because in the early 1800s debtors, lifelong criminals,

and child offenders were put in the same cells so reformers demanded rehabilitation

Calls to end slavery

Abolition is a movement to end slavery it began in the late 1700s and by 1804, most

northern states had outlawed 1807 congress banned the importion of

african slaves in the united states soon abolitionists began to demand a law to

end slavery in the south people like david walker, a free african american in boston

printing a pamphlet in 1829 urging slaves to revolt this caused the southerners to be

angry soon when walker heard his life was in danger he refused to run and died

mysteriously few northern whites fought slavery and in 1831, William Lloyd Garrison

began to publish an abolitionist newspaper called The Liberator and many his views.

and in 1834, a furious mob in boston grabbed him and dragged him to the park to

hang him but saved by the mayor also two famous abolitionists were southerners who

grew up on plantations like sisters sarah and angelina Grimke both moved to the north

to help against slavery and her husband Theodore Weld led a campaign to send antislavery

petitions to congress proslavery congressmen passed gag laws to prevent the reading of those

petitions in congress but john quincy adams ignored them and read the petitions and also

introduced the amendment to abolish slavery and such efforts however only weakened the

proslavery and adams also defended a group of africans who had rebelled on the slave ship

Amistad and successfully argued their case and sent them back home.

Calls for Women's Rights

In the mid 1800’s there are three powerful women. They included of Sojourner Truth, Maria Mitchell, Susan B. Anthony. Sojourner truth spoke at conventions for women’s rights in Ohio. She supported abolition and urged men to grant women rights. Mia Mitchell was a scientist who helped found the Association for the Advancement of Women. Also she became the first women to be elected to the American Academy of Art and Sciences. Susan B. Anthony worked in the area of antislavery movements. She said that “women should have purse money of their own”. She helped pass a law that gave women rights to their own property and wages.

Women's suffrage was still a problem until the 1900's and the American Government did not abolish slavery till 1865. That will lead to the Civil war