Let's Learn About Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA!
We, though, are only talking about two of these activities: genetic engineering and recombinant DNA. We'll talk about what they are, their future uses, and their pros and cons.
What Are Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA?
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is a combination of two or more gene sequences that are constructed artificially. It is engineered explicitly to be used for one of multiple rDNA applications. Just like GE, it can used for both animals and plants.
Genetic engineering also has many applications. According to http://futurehumanevolution.com/genetic-engineering-the-past-present-and-future/3 , "Modifications to the genomes of various plant species have resulted in the development of a number of commercially viable and agriculturally relevant technologies. Farmers employ the use of modified plants that have been engineered to contain herbicide and pesticide resistant genes. This allows for use of chemicals in the farming industry without the risk of harming crops." Also, biologically modified bacteria are being used to get rid of oil (for during oil spills), plastic, and a bunch of other toxic items. There is, however, a downside. Because this process can be unpredictable, new substances can be formed, jeopardizing the health of those with allergies. Also, since plants won't be harmed by insecticides, farmers will spray more and more on them. Not only will pests build up an immunity to insecticides, but we'll end up with an even more polluted environment.
These Men Jump Started The Field Of Genetic Engineering!
Understanding The Processes
There are also five easy-to-understand steps for the producing of recombinant DNA. Step one is that, using a restriction enzyme, the preferred gene is cut from a DNA molecule. In step two, the same restriction enzyme is used. It is used to cut an isolated bacterial plasmid. The same restriction enzyme is used to make sure cut ends are the same base sequence to the ends of the required gene. The third step is a process called ligation. Using the enzyme DNA ligase, the required gene is joined to the plasmid. The resulting recombinant plasmid is returned to the bacterial cell in step four. Finally, in step five, the bacteria reproduce, and the gene is cloned.
Frequently Asked Questions
Animals that have been genetically engineered are cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, dogs, goats, cats, fish, rats, and mice.
Is a GE animal a clone?
No, there's a difference. Clones are exact copies while GE animals' genomes are purposefully modified.
Are people already eating rDNA biotechnology-derived foods?
Yes, unless they only eat 100% organic foods. This is because most processed food today have some ingredients that are at least partly rDNA biotechnology-derived.
In conclusion, genetic engineering and recombinant DNA are genetic technologies used on both plants and animals. They have easily understandable processes and are used to change nature. Therefore, genetic engineering and recombinant DNA are just like everything else in this life - full of positives and negatives. If we think about implications for the future, we realize that they have the ability to change the world. Whether for better or for worse is determined by how we use them.