Chaos in China

By Leslie and justin

Nationalists and Communists

Revolutionary marxism had its greatest impact in China. By 1920, central authority had almost ceased to exist in China. Two political forces began to emerge as competitors for the right to rule China. In 1921, a group of young radicals, including several faculty and staff members from Beijing University, founded the Chinese Communist Party, in the commercial and industrial city of Shanghai.

Shanghai Massacre

In April 1927, Chiang Kai-Shek struck against the Communists and their supporters in Shanghai, killing thousands in what was called the Shanghai Massacre.


Communists in Hiding

After the Shanghai Massacre, most of the communist leaders went into hiding in the city. They tried to bring back the communist movement. shanghai was a good recruiting place for this. Some party members went to Jiangxi where they were led by Mao Zedong.Mao was convinced that a chinese revolution would be driven by poverty stricken peasants in the countryside rather than the urban working class.



Chiang Kai-shek tried to root the communists out of shanghai and jiangxi provinces. he succeeded in 1931, most party leaders had to flee to Mao’s base in South China.

Chiang kai-shek turned his forces against Mao’s stronghold in Jiangxi Province. Chiang’s forces outnumbered Mao’s but Mao made effective use of Guerilla tactics using maneuvers like sabotage and subterfuge.

Mao’s Four slogans

When the enemy advances, we retreat!

When the enemy halts and camps, we trouble them!

When the enemy tries to avoid battle, we attack!

When the enemy retreats, we pursue!

The new China of Chiang Kai-Shek

Chiang publicly declared his commitment to the plans of a republican government.

Two part plan:

1) Period of political tutelage (training), which would lead to

2) a constitutional government.

-Years of neglect and civil war had severely weakened the political, economic, and social fabric of the nation.

-Chiang then tried to introduce foreign ideas into the population.

-redistribution of wealth is the shifting of wealth from a rich minority to a poor minority

The Long March

In 1934, Chiang’s troops, using their superior military strength, surrounded the communist base in Jiangxi. The PLA broke through the Nationalist lines and began its Famous Long March. Moving on foot through the mountains, marshes, and deserts, Mao’s army traveled almost 6,000 miles to reach the surviving communist base in the northwest of China. They started running out of food and they were starting to starve.after a year the troops finally reached safety in the hills of north China.only 9,000 survived of the 90,000. Mao Zedong became the sole leader of the Chinese Communist party.


Shanghai Massacre video

Long-term causes of Shanghai Massacre and the Chinese Civil War

Mao Zedong

Declassified - Chairman Mao - China - Communist Part 1

Chiang Kai- Shek

Chiang Kai-Shek: The Chinese Revolution and The Nationalist's Reform.