500-325 B.C.

Advanced Cities

Some of the advanced cities are Sardis,Susa,and Peraepolis

Social Structure

society consisted of three classes, the warriors or aristocracy, the priests, and the farmers or herdsmen


Greek writings establish with all reasonable clarity that the later Achaemenids were Zoroastrians; but the religion of the early kings has been much debated.


They had dynasty government. Their government was undoing the local governments which would weaken the king central authority.

System of Writing

Early in the history of the dynasty, a syllabic script to write the Old Persian language was developed. Old Persian is classified as a syllabic script. It is also a very skeletal syllabary, in that sounds like /pu/ do not have independent signs but instead must be written with the signs pa and u.

Technology/ Contribution

Achaemenid Empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social, technological and religious influences. Many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange, some being employed by, or allied to the Persian kings.


P. Briant, Historie de l' empire Perse: De Cyrus a Alexandre (1996).

Roes, Anne. "Achaemenid Influence upon Egyptian and Nomad Art," Artibus Asiae, Vol. 15, No. 1/2 (1952), pp. 17-30. Artibus Asiae Publishers.

"The Small-Scale Arts of Achaemenid Persia." The Persians: Archaeology of Achaemenid Persia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2014.

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Glyptic Arts

Achaemenid glyptic art is largely known from unexcavated seals and sealings. Overall, however, the available corpus helps to document a relatively experimental and free artistic environment, with a wide variety of designs and styles available to the seal carvers and their clients.