Intrinsic and extrinsic injuries and how to prevent injuries

Individual differences; age of participants

If your too old you may not be able to meet the demands of the environment, If your too young you have to make the task age appropriate, If the task is too hard then players may get stressed and over think leading to them possibly training too hard leading to an injury, for example an eleven year old wouldn't play two full halves of 40 minuets because they wouldn't be able to cope with it physically so they would most likely play only 20 minuets; this prevents young players from experience fatigue and/or potentially fainting due to the long period of intense football. Also younger children are still growing so putting them through intense exercise can form complications further in the future, for example if they are experiencing hypertrophy to often this can cause the muscle to be pushed away from the bone and this can lead to bone injuries such as shin splints which can prevent participation in the future; in order to prevent this coaches can make the session less strenuous and focus on getting the players' technical ability so that when they come of age they can then focus on getting stronger which will also allow them to have a long career.

Its not only younger people that can have problems due to their age, in older people they also have their set of issues. Older participants mainly 60+ will not be able to compete with the younger ages in normal circumstances so in order to prevent injuries we would do the same as the younger ages and reduce the halves played and intensity but we would also make the young non contact this will reduce virtually all possible risks whilst they are playing. In older people they may also have joint problems which can make them fear exercise leading to playing apprehensively and not wanting to participate. to deal with this you can adapt the session by making all players walk instead run and no contact; this make all participants feel wanted and also prevents any chances of injury.

Training effects

Proper training is vital so you are prepared for your sport, failure to do so can increase risk of injury to the athlete, Training to strengthen injuries so you can return to your playing field quicker, however over training one group of muscles can cause injuries due to the over compensated muscle being much larger to its opposite pair which causes imbalances therefore leading to injuries. To prevent this a coach must train all muscles in the group evenly to prevent muscle imbalances and allows the player to continue playing the without and recurring injuries.

Coaches must thoroughly assess their sessions because failing to spot any potential risks and hazards can harm everyone not just the participants, so a coach must perform a proper risk assessment to insure there isn't anything like a leakage, or uneven ground and also make sure that they are aware of any health risks so that issues like asthma can be dealt with properly.

Postural defects

Some individuals might have been born with abnormal spinal curvatures, these deformities can make participating in sport. Some of these spinal deformities include:

Scoliosis- Is an abnormal twisting of the spine.

Kyphosis- This is the top of the spine arching.

Lordosis- This is the inward curve of the lower part of the spine.

In order to prevent these issues from making a big impact during sport get the participants to avoid any contact sports especially rugby as the taken received and cause even more issues; also ensure that they have adiqute time to recover asfter each session.

Incorrect technique

Handling equipment - When catching the ball it should be firmly planted into your palms, but if the ball hits your finger tip at a good pace then it can break you finger leading to swelling or bruising on the finger.

To prevent this one should watch a professional and study their technique to reduce the risk of injury, therefore not being able to play.

Hamstring injuries - hamstring injuries are very commun in sport and they can occur from many things such as landing incorrectly from a throw in, poor running technique or not warming up properly.

An easy way to prevent this is to do mobility stretches before the game to warm up the muscles getting them ready for exercise, aswell as the coaching ensure that players know to land on both feet to ensure that no excess pressure is put on one leg whilst landing therefore leading to an injury.

Lifting weights - Rugby players need to be physically strong to meet the demands of the environment, rugby players eat a lot then turn the fat into muscle to sustain this so they go to the gym very often. When lifting weights the correct technique is vital to avoid injury for example lifting with your legs not your back stops the back from being strained and avoids back injuries or possibly even a spinal injury. When exercising having a rest is highly recommended to give muscles time to repair if not this could lead to muscle tears and strains, to avoid an injury a personal trainer should be next to you when exercising you so they can spot you and insure the correct technique is used in every exercise, as well as to provide a healthy training regime; this will ensure the player is available for every training session and ready for every match.

Environmental Factors

Weather - If the weather is too hot and you are wearing way more clothes than needed for example thermal clothing or jogging bottoms, this can lead to you sweating excessively which can de hydration resulting into you fainting, dizziness, headaches and other things.

Being un alert during a match will have a big impact on the games due to the tempo of a standard game.

To prevent this you should remain well hydrated by drinking around 4-5 litres of water a day and to wear appropriate clothing when playing sport.

you should always make sure your footwear is best suited for the ground your playing on, if it's been raining whilst your playing or rained the night before this pitch will be very slippery and to cope in that environment you need a pair of studs or moulds. This will give you the best opportunity to stay up on your feet upon impact.Having incorrect footwear may lead to you twisting your ankle or even injuring an opponent.

To prevent this you should bring two pairs of footwear this way making sure you are ready to participate in the session or play the game.


Coaching must always demonstrate knowledge of what they are coaching in this case rugby but they also have to have good communication skills as failing to explain the correct technique to a participant can lead to injuries. An example of were poor coaching can become a risk is when a player goes for a high tackle(which is illegal) and the coaching doesn't say anything about it this might make the player feel that it was ok to do that during a match, so when the match comes and they do it they would most likely deal serious damage to the opposing player whilst also getting themselves sent off preventing them from playing; so coaching must ensure that they demonstrate or at least explain it well enough well enough where all players can understand it also video examples can also be helpful. The only sure fire way to make sure that there are no risks whilst coaching is to ensure that as a coach they are appropriately qualified for what they are doing and also making sure they fully understand the rules and regulations of the Rugby football union(RFU).

Safety hazards

It is essential that coaches, staff, players and even volunteers are aware of any potential dangers that involved with playing rugby. There are various considerations that must be used when setting up a session and during a session. In order to support any policies for health and safety it is the duty for any club to do regular risk assessments and record them and any other activities done on the day keeps records ensures that all procedures are kept track of and that ensures coaching that their players are safe. Clubs must make sure that they have the right procedures in place to make sure that if anything goes wrong players can be taken care of quickly to limit the harm done for example a on site first aider; this makes the environment safe for all in attendance. All players should also be trained to a appropriate level before taking part, so for example coaches must ensure that any new players are ready for what ever level of sport they are going to take part in and must not play them before they are ready to take part, also all coaches even volunteers must fully understand the regulations of the RFU whilst instructing any kind of activity; also competent staff must be hired. Clubs must ensure that everyone is aware of any emergency procedures such as emergency exits, make sure that there are adequate facilities for first aiders, phones and a dedicated first aider.

Clothing and footwear

Wearing the correct clothing and/or equipment is just as important as performing any technique correctly perhaps even more important because if even a player does a safe tackle if they were wearing running shoes instead of the designated boots for example they could slip during the tackle and fall into the opponents knees causing an injury. Wearing broken equipment can also be dangerous as it will not be able to serve its primary function such as protection or mobility, so ensure that boots and gum shields are checked and certified before buying and using them, also wearing too much or too little equipment can lead to injuries as wearing too little leaves you under protected and wearing to much can put excess train on to the body whilst playing and damage the muscles. So to limit the risks make sure that all equipment used it certified by the RFU or any other legitimate equipment distributers and also follow the RFU's regulations on equipment and clothing as it is there to keep everyone safe.