by: Brandi Dudek
The Four Chambers Of The Heart
The Right Atrium: It contracts and the tricuspid valve opens, which allows the blood to enter the right ventricle.
The Right Ventricle: It contracts and the pulmonic valve opens, which allows the blood to enter the into the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery carries the blood to the lungs where oxygen is picked up.
The Left Atrium: It contracts and the mitral valve opens, which allows the blood to enter the left ventricle.
The Left Ventricle: It contracts and the aortic valve opens then the blood rushes into aorta (main artery of the body). The aorta carries the blood throughout the body.
Is a sac full of fluid that surrounds the heart and the proximal ends of the aorta, vena cava, and the pulmonary artery. The function of the pericardium is to contain the heart in the chest cavity and prevent the heart from over expanding when blood volume increases. Inside the pericardium is the pericardial cavity which is filled with pericardial fluid. This fluid reduces friction between the pericardial membranes.
Visceral Pericardium: Inner layer of pericardium.
Parietal Pericardium: Outer layer of pericardium.
Major Blood Vessels
The Right Pulmonary Artery: Carries blood from the pulmonary trunk, to the lungs and divides into two branches at the root of the right lung.
The Left Pulmonary Artery: Carries blood from the from the pulmonary trunk, to the lungs. It connects to the left lung and normally has more branches than the right pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary Trunk: Arises from the right ventricle, and divides into the left and right pulmonary arteries.
Superior Vena Cava: It brings blood from the arms and head back to the right atrium.
Inferior Vena Cava: It brings blood from the torso and legs and to the right atrium.
Blood Flow Through The Heart
Blue parts in the picture are the oxygenated blood.
Systematic Circulation: (circulation through the body) after getting oxygenated the blood returns to the heart and travels throughout the body.
Pulmonary Circulation: (circulation through the lungs) is mostly carbon dioxide and brings the blood to the lungs were they get oxygenated.
Conduction System Of The Heart
It is made up of cardiac muscle cells and conducting fibers (excluding nervous tissue), which make impulses that conduct rapidly throughout the heart. Making a normal cardiac cycle and control the contractions of the cardiac chambers. Both atria contract together first then the ventricles contract together second. All in all this creates a automatic heart beat.
Arteries, Capillaries, and Vein Differences
The ECG Test
The ECG records the electrical activity that results when the heart muscle cells in the atria and ventricles contract.
Pertains to picture below:
Blood Pressure tests two things your systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. A nurse would read this like 110/70. The top # is the systolic pressure or force the heart places on the walls of your blood vessels as it is working with each beat. The bottom # is the diastolic pressure which is the pressure the blood places on the walls of your blood vessels when the heart is relaxed between beats.
- Age (around 65 or older have higher risk)
- Tobacco Use
Is a cycle of of events that occurs as the heart contracts. It consists of two phases diastole phase and systole phase. Diastole is where the heart ventricles are relaxed. Systole is where the ventricles contract and pump blood to the arteries.
Is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. It is not all the blood that is in the left ventricle only about two thirds of the blood gets expelled each beat. The stroke volume determines the cardiac output.
WBC (white blood cell) Count: Is used as part of a complete blood count as a general health check. It looks at the five different white blood cells and from figuring out the count they can determine if something is wrong and what it can be.
Platelet Count: Is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets help clot the blood.
What is Pernicious Anemia
Is a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin plays a big role in carrying oxygen to the tissues of the body. For males if the hemoglobin level if less than 13.5 gram/100mL he is considered pernicious anemic and as for women if they have less than 12.0 gram/100mL they are considered pernicious anemic. It it caused by the inability to absorb vitamin B-12. Your body can store vitamin B-12 for a long time therefore not getting enough vitamin B-12 has to been an on going thing for years.
If the pulse gets high it causes a fall in blood pressure because the heart is not contracting in the usual coordinated way to be an efficient pump.
Hematocrit: Hematocrit tests how much the blood is made up of red blood cells, and the body is producing low red blood cells, so tests are low.
Platelet: Have abnormal amounts and can mean you have pernicious anemia.