Pernicious Anemia

by: Brandi Dudek

The Four Chambers Of The Heart

The Right Atrium: It contracts and the tricuspid valve opens, which allows the blood to enter the right ventricle.

The Right Ventricle: It contracts and the pulmonic valve opens, which allows the blood to enter the into the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery carries the blood to the lungs where oxygen is picked up.

The Left Atrium: It contracts and the mitral valve opens, which allows the blood to enter the left ventricle.

The Left Ventricle: It contracts and the aortic valve opens then the blood rushes into aorta (main artery of the body). The aorta carries the blood throughout the body.

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The Pericardium

Is a sac full of fluid that surrounds the heart and the proximal ends of the aorta, vena cava, and the pulmonary artery. The function of the pericardium is to contain the heart in the chest cavity and prevent the heart from over expanding when blood volume increases. Inside the pericardium is the pericardial cavity which is filled with pericardial fluid. This fluid reduces friction between the pericardial membranes.

Visceral Pericardium: Inner layer of pericardium.

Parietal Pericardium: Outer layer of pericardium.

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Major Blood Vessels

The Aorta: Carries blood from the heart to all organs and other structures.

The Right Pulmonary Artery: Carries blood from the pulmonary trunk, to the lungs and divides into two branches at the root of the right lung.

The Left Pulmonary Artery: Carries blood from the from the pulmonary trunk, to the lungs. It connects to the left lung and normally has more branches than the right pulmonary artery.

Pulmonary Trunk: Arises from the right ventricle, and divides into the left and right pulmonary arteries.

Superior Vena Cava: It brings blood from the arms and head back to the right atrium.

Inferior Vena Cava: It brings blood from the torso and legs and to the right atrium.

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Blood Flow Through The Heart

Red parts in the picture are the oxygen poor blood.

Blue parts in the picture are the oxygenated blood.

Systematic Circulation: (circulation through the body) after getting oxygenated the blood returns to the heart and travels throughout the body.

Pulmonary Circulation: (circulation through the lungs) is mostly carbon dioxide and brings the blood to the lungs were they get oxygenated.

Conduction System Of The Heart

It is made up of cardiac muscle cells and conducting fibers (excluding nervous tissue), which make impulses that conduct rapidly throughout the heart. Making a normal cardiac cycle and control the contractions of the cardiac chambers. Both atria contract together first then the ventricles contract together second. All in all this creates a automatic heart beat.

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Arteries, Capillaries, and Vein Differences

Arteries get blood from the heart and then they divide into smaller vessels that become arterioles. The arterioles divide into smaller microscopic exchange vessels called capillaries. In these exchange vessels the exchange of nutrients and respiratory gases occur between the blood and tissue fluid around the cells. Then the blood moves and enters into smaller venules and the venules merge together. This increases in size and become veins. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the capillaries while the veins carry the blood to the heart.

The ECG Test

The ECG test or Electrocardiogram Test is a test that records the electrical activity in the heart and records it on a paper in waves.

The ECG records the electrical activity that results when the heart muscle cells in the atria and ventricles contract.

  • Atrial contractions show up as the P wave.
  • Ventricular contractions show as a series known as the QRS complex.
  • The third and last common wave in an ECG is the T wave. This is the electrical activity produced when the ventricles are recharging for the next contraction (repolarizing).
  • Interestingly, the letters P, Q, R, S, and T are not abbreviations for any actual words but were chosen many years ago for their position in the middle of the alphabet.
  • The electrical activity results in P, QRS, and T waves that are of different sizes and shapes. When viewed from different leads, these waves can show a wide range of abnormalities of both the electrical conduction system and the muscle tissue of the hearts 4 pumping chambers.
Pertains to picture below:

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Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure tests two things your systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. A nurse would read this like 110/70. The top # is the systolic pressure or force the heart places on the walls of your blood vessels as it is working with each beat. The bottom # is the diastolic pressure which is the pressure the blood places on the walls of your blood vessels when the heart is relaxed between beats.


  • Age (around 65 or older have higher risk)
  • Medications
  • Tobacco Use
  • Pregnancy
  • Exercise
  • Caffeine

Cardiac Cycle

Is a cycle of of events that occurs as the heart contracts. It consists of two phases diastole phase and systole phase. Diastole is where the heart ventricles are relaxed. Systole is where the ventricles contract and pump blood to the arteries.

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Stroke Volume

Is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction. It is not all the blood that is in the left ventricle only about two thirds of the blood gets expelled each beat. The stroke volume determines the cardiac output.


Is an artery expanding and then recoiling alternately. Can provide information about heart rate, strength, and rhythmicity of heart beat.

Heart Sounds

They say it makes a "lub" "dub" sound. The first sound "lub" is the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the start of the systole. The second sound "dub" is caused by the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves, making the end of the systole.

Blood Tests

Hematocrit: Is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells.

WBC (white blood cell) Count: Is used as part of a complete blood count as a general health check. It looks at the five different white blood cells and from figuring out the count they can determine if something is wrong and what it can be.

Platelet Count: Is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets help clot the blood.

Individual Case

What is Pernicious Anemia

Is a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin plays a big role in carrying oxygen to the tissues of the body. For males if the hemoglobin level if less than 13.5 gram/100mL he is considered pernicious anemic and as for women if they have less than 12.0 gram/100mL they are considered pernicious anemic. It it caused by the inability to absorb vitamin B-12. Your body can store vitamin B-12 for a long time therefore not getting enough vitamin B-12 has to been an on going thing for years.

EKG Results

The EKG can result in more electrical activity than usual because since pernicious anemia effects the oxygen getting to the tissues of the body, the heart wants to make more red blood cells. It can't make more because this condition causes effects with the red blood cells and it has to work harder to get the oxygen needed and transported with less red blood cells than the body wants.


The pulse increases because of the inability to get enough oxygen where it is needed.

Blood Pressure

If the pulse gets high it causes a fall in blood pressure because the heart is not contracting in the usual coordinated way to be an efficient pump.

Stroke Volume

The stroke volume does increase in an attempt to improve oxygen delivery to tissues.

Cardiac Output

The cardiac out put increases because lack of oxygen which creates larger stroke volume and higher blood pressure. These increase the amount of blood that is pumped per minute.

Heart Sounds

The "lub" and "dub" are louder and faster because the heart is trying harder to get more blood flowing to get the oxygen to the tissues as needed.

Blood Tests

WBC count: White blood cells count are lower than normal

Hematocrit: Hematocrit tests how much the blood is made up of red blood cells, and the body is producing low red blood cells, so tests are low.

Platelet: Have abnormal amounts and can mean you have pernicious anemia.