Research Project

By: Arnold Sandoval


  1. An idealistic philosophical and social movement that developed in New England around 1836 in reaction to rationalism. Influenced by romanticism, Platonism, and Kantian philosophy, it taught that divinity pervades all nature and humanity, and its members held progressive views on feminism and communal living.

Utopian Movement

  1. 100,000 individuals formed utopian communities in an effort to create perfect societies. The idea of a perfect society intertwined with communalism can be traced back to Plato's Republic, the book of Actsin the New Testament, and the work of Sir Thomas More. The years 1820 to 1860 saw the heydey of this movement with the creation of numerous communities.

Brook Farm

Experimental farm based on cooperative living. Founded by George Ripley, a Unitarian minister, the farm was initially financed by a joint-stock company with 24 shares of stock at $500 per share. Each member was to take part in the manual labor in an attempt to make the group self-sufficient.

Noah Webster

he published the American Speller. He wrote it to help children spell words correctly. it was reported to have sold over 100,000,000 copies since it was first published. Webster also published a compendious dictionary of the english language.

Washington Irving

Irving achieved international fame for his fictional works, including the stories Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, as well as for his biographies and historical writings. Irving served as the United States ambassador to Spain and helped to promote international copyright before he died in 1859.

Edgar Allen Poe

American short-story writer, poet, critic, and editor Edgar Allan Poe's tales of mystery and horror initiated the modern detective story, and the atmosphere in his tales of horror is unrivaled in American fiction. His The Raven (1845) numbers among the best-known poems in national literature