Leaders: The Good and The Bad

By: Kayla Cruz

William the Conqueror

Biography

Full Name: William I Born: 1027 in Falaise, France Died:1087 in Rouen, France Nationality: English Occupation: Duke of Normandy and King of England Personality: intelligent and shrewd

"When William the Conqueror commissioned a great survey of his English realm at Gloucester in 1085, the result was a work so thorough, fair, dispassionate, and wide-ranging that it seemed to the succeeding generations to have come from another world."-James Buchan

Memorable Moments

William I was born from the Duke of Normandy and a peasant girl, which made him an illegitimate son. He became the Duke at age 8 after his father, Robert I died. When Edward the Confesser died, the two made a hereditary claim so that William would take the throne of England, but his brother-in-law decided to take it for himself. To regain power of the throne, William made plans to invade England. After several weeks of sailing,on October 14, 1066, the armies finally battled it out; Harold Goodwin and his two brothers were killed and William became King on Christmas Day. This battle is refered to as the Battle of Hastings. Over next few years, he put down several revolts and took the land from those who resisted, keeping some for himself and spliting the rest between his Norman followers. During his life he became the father to four sons and five daughters.

Importance

Although William the Conqueror never spoke English and couldn't write, he had a bigger impact on the English language than anyone else before him by adding French and Latin words to our dictionary.

Joan of Arc

Biographical Info

Full Name:Jeanne d'Arc Born:1412 in France Died:May 30, 1431 in France Nationality:French Occupation:Warrior/Saint Personality: brave and inspiring

“I am not afraid..... I was born to do this.” -Joan of Arc

Memorable Moments

Joan of Arc was born into a very religious peasant family. When she was 12/13 years old she started hearing voices in her head, claiming them to be of Saints. At 17, she left home to fulfill a mission sent from God to her. Joan recognized King Charles in peasant clothes without ever seeing him before. Later she lead her French army to rescue Orléans from the English and came out victorious. Joan also led Charles trough enemy territory so that he could finally be crowned king. In attempt to free Paris from English rule, Joan of Arc was wounded and captured by the English army. She was tried with charges of witchcraft and heresy, and sentenced to death. Years after being burned at the stakes on May 30, 1431, Joan was pronounced innocent and declared a saint in 1920.

Importance

At only 17 years old, Joan of the Arc commanded her own army in tremendous victories, reversed the outcome of the Hundred Years War in just a couple months, and had many other marvelous abilities all while still keeping her faith and devotion to God. Joan of Arc is admired by people of many different beliefs.

King John

Biographical Info

Born:December 24,1167 in Oxford Died:October 19,1216 in Newark Nationality: English Nicknames:John Lackland, softsword Personality: cruel, disloyal, unscrupulous

"John, nature's enemy"

Memorable Moments

When King Henry II died, he left all his land to Richard and gave none to John(Earning his the nickname Lackland). He was crowned king in 1199 when Richard the Lionheart finally died. His nephew,Arthur, was murdered in 1202, which caused Brittany's people to believe John did it, so they rebelled. John was forced to retreat, because of this defeat he had to raise taxes. Later John argued with the Pope over who would become the Archbishop of Canterbury, which lead to the Pope stopping all church services in the kingdom making John's people angry with him. He was forced to surrender to the Pope in 1213. After another defeat, the Barons of England rebelled against John. John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1205 at Runnymede, but he did not uphold to the promises made, so the Barons declared war. In 1216, John died after eating peaches.

Importance

King John is known for the signing of the Magna Carta, which gave new rights to people and nobles. But, John only followed it for three months. Without this signing, our system wouldn't be the same. John had a reputation for being a bad leader ,and also, how he lost most of England's possessions to France's King Phillip.