Chapter 12

Creating A Healthy Work Environment

Blue Shield of California: Real Stories, Real Results
GRITtv: Hilda Solis: The Safety Net is Eroding

Why is Safety Important

Every day in America 12 people arrive to work and never make it home.

Every year in America 3.3 million people suffer from a workplace injury. Some may never recover from these injuries.

A loss of 4 - 5% of GDP and economic loss due to workplace injury.

Table 12-1 - The Cost of Workplace Injuries - Review

Back injuries/slip and falls are the largest percentage of permanent disability claims.

Safety Culture

Shared safety attitudes, beliefs and practices that outline employee safety behavior.

The Influence of an Organization's Safety Culture

1. Management/employee attitudes
2. Supervisor priorities/accountability/responsibilities
3. Management/Employee norms, beliefs and assumptions
4. Employee safety training/motivation
5. Manager/Employee involvement and commitment
6. Production/financial pressures
7. Employees actions to correct unsafe behaviors/situations

What are some of the direct/indirect cost of accidents?

W.Va. Mine Disaster May Be Worst in 25 Years
Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill... Oil Rig Explosion April 2010
2013:Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Going From Horrible To Horrendous


Ergonomics is the scientific study of people at work.

The goal of ergonomics is to reduce stress and eliminate injuries and disorders associated with the overuse of muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks.

This is accomplished by designing tasks, work spaces, controls, displays, tools, lighting, and equipment to fit the employee´s physical capabilities and limitations.
Big image

Cumulative Trauma Disorder

Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are

injuries of the musculoskeletal and nervous

systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks,

forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical

compression (pressing against hard surfaces),

or sustained or awkward positions.

Cumulative trauma disorders are also called regional

musculoskeletal disorders, repetitive motion

disorders (RMDs), overuse syndromes, repetitive

motion injuries, or repetitive strain injuries.

Carpel Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - a compression of the

median nerve in the wrist that may be caused by

swelling and irritation of tendons and tendon


Created by performing repetitive task with the same muscles.

What occupational positions are known to suffer from both of these workplace injuries?

Ergonomic Job Design for Repetitive Task

1. Analyzing the task sequence to allow changes in the body position
2. Create a regular work rest schedule to relieve the muscles from mechanical stress
3. Create consistent work breaks to avoid monotonous and repetitive work patterns
4. Rotate task to move employees from one position to another

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

A federal organization (part of the Department of Labor) that ensures safe and healthy working conditions for Americans by enforcing standards and providing workplace safety training.

OSHA - Work Related Injuries and Illnesses - bottom of page 387


OSHA Standards - top of page 389

Rules defining the policy employers are legally required to follow to protect employees from hazards.

What are some examples of OSHA standards?

OSHA INSPECTIONS - bottom of page 389

1. Imminent danger situations
2. Complaints
3. Referrals
4. Follow-Ups
5. Planned or Programmed Investigations


Provides programs and services to assist employers on how to identify/correct job hazards and improve injury/illness prevention programs.

Employee Wellness Programs

initiatives designed to increase organizational/employee performance/morale via improved employee health.

What are some of the factors Wellness Programs can address?

Wellness Incentives - rewards for engaging in healthy behavior or participation in wellness programs.

Review Page 392 - HR Flexibility
Getting Paid To Stay Healthy (CBS News)

Name several tips for effective health incentives

Johnson & Johnson | Wellness & Prevention, Inc

In-Class Assignment - Complete Case Study on Johnson & Johnson Wellness Programs

Functional Stress

Manageable levels of stress that creates positive emotions:

Dysfunctional Stress

Overload of stress resulting from situations of over/under arousal over a period of time.

What are some issues that may arise due to stress?

Problem-focused coping strategies

Directly dealing with the cause of stress.

Emotion-focused coping strategies

Focus on emotions bought on by stress.

Develop your skills - Page 396 - Managing your stress

Tips for reducing stressors in your life.

What are some positive stress management strategies?

What are some ways employers can assist employees with stress management?

Workplace Bullying

Workplace Bullying is repeated, health-harming mistreatment of one or more persons (the targets) by one or more perpetrators that takes one or more of the following forms:

  • Verbal abuse.
  • Offensive conduct/behaviors (including nonverbal) which are threatening, humiliating or intimidating
  • Work interference – sabotage – which prevents work from getting done.

American employees are stuck when working as at-will employees. Given that there are six candidates for each job opening during this recession, people stay in miserable work conditions getting sicker each day from stress-related health complications. While working in less than desirable jobs in toxic work environments, they see the few workers' rights eroded.

American unions have also begun to learn about bullying and some have even been trained to provide peer support for their bullied members. Bullying is a vexing problem for most unions when the mistreatment is member-on-member. Canadian unions have a mixed record from exemplary responses to eliminate bullying to denial.



Substance Abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse and substance use disorder, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others.

Workplace Violence

Violence or the threat of violence against workers. It can occur at or outside the workplace and can range from threats and verbal abuse to physical assaults and homicide, one of the leading causes of job-related deaths. However it manifests itself, workplace violence is a growing concern for employers andemployees nationwide
Flash Point - Recognizing and Preventing Violence in the Workplace

Disaster Preparedness and Response - American Red Cross Recommendations

Human Resources
Physical Resources
Business Continuity