Raina White

Helen Hunt Jackson

  1. October 15, 1830 – August 12, 1885
  2. Was an American poet and writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of native americans by the U.S. government.
  3. started investigating and publicizing government misconduct, circulating petitions, raising money, and writing letters to the New York Times on behalf of the Ponca in 1879.

Morrill Act

  1. Named after Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont.
  2. The Morrill Act was first proposed in 1857, and was passed by Congress in 1859, but it was vetoed by President James Buchanan.
  3. In 1861, Morrill resubmitted the act with the amendment that the proposed institutions would teach military tactics as well as engineering and agriculture. Aided by the secession of many states that did not support the plans, this reconfigured Morrill Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on July 2, 1862.

Jacob Riis

  1. May 3, 1849 – May 26, 1914
  2. Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography.

Dawes Act

  1. Also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887.
  2. Adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
  3. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship.
  4. The Dawes Act was amended in 1891, and again in 1906 by the Burke Act.
  5. The Act was named for its creator, Senator Henry L. (Laurens) Dawes of Massachusetts.