(Penelope): "Human beings live for only a short time, and when a man is harsh himself, and his mind knows harsh thoughts, all men pray that suffering will befall him hereafter while he lives; and when he is dead all men make fun of him. But when a man is blamless himself, and his thoughts are blameless, the friends he has entertained carry his fame widely to all mankind, and many are they who call him excellent" Penelope is saying that if you do good to people your name will be spread around as a great person worldwide.
(See'er): "Poor wrestches, what evil has come on you? Your head and faces and the knees underneath you are shrouded in night and darkness; a sound of wailing hase broken out, your cheeck are covered with tears, and the walls bleed, and the fine supporting pillars. All the forecourt is huddled with gohsts, the yard is full of them as they flock down to the underworld and the darkness. The sun has perished out of the sky, and a foul mist has come over." It's saying that the suitors will soon face their fate of being killed and going to hell. There will be the feeling of death all around on the night of their deaths.
The goddess of love. She gets caught cheating on her husband and he shows everybody and humiliates her.
Argos is Odysseus's dog. When Odysseus returns the dog dies from being so happy. He is extremely loyal.
Loyal to Odysseus all the years. He is the town crier of news and when the slaughter happens, he is one that is saved because of his loyalty.