Canada, 2035

By: Gabi Chang

Unit 1- Changing Populations

Will Canada be a desired destination for immigration?

I think that Canada will be a desired country for immigration, but that it will only be desired by people who have poor living conditions. Since, many countries are moving from stage 3 to 4 according to the Demographic Transition Model, meaning they will have access to birth control and a stable population (death rate and birth rate are low and stable) as well as good education and health. For countries that are in between the 2 and 3 stage and their country isn’t urbanizing enough to fulfill their needs, they may want to move to a country that can. Canada would be an ideal country for those people because Canada is urbanized to the point that all of the basic needs are fulfilled as well as the wants of the people.
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Who will Canada be attracting as immigrants?

Canada will be trying to attract people from Asia because they have been immigrating to Canada for a long time and make up a lot of our population. Since, Asia (China, North Korea and South Korea) is urbanizing and is currently well on their way to stage 4 of the demographic transition mode. This would cause the people to stay in their native country instead of immigrating to Canada. If the people from Asia decide not to immigrate to Canada, then our population will suffer a great loss and the workforce of Canada will be greatly affected. Immigrants make up 20% of Canada’s overall population.
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How will Canada’s population look?

I don’t think that from 2015 to 2035, the population will change much. Canada will be still in the stage between 4 and 5. I think that 20 years will not make much of a difference because Canada isn’t one of those countries that make drastic changes. There will be a gradual decline in the birth rate and a stable, low death rate. Canada is not yet like Germany or Japan because they’re population still revolves around the younger generations.

What issues will our First Nations, Metis & Inuit population face?

I feel that an issue they will have to face will be large situations revolving around poverty. Because many are living in reserves there aren’t many jobs available, this makes it harder to support themselves and their families. I think this will be the main concern to the Aboriginals, First Nations, Metis and Inuit because if they are living in poverty, their everyday life will be a struggle. But, I believe that if they assimilate into cities, instead of living in reserves they may have a better chance at making a stable living.

A fusion of First Nations, Aboriginals and Metis'

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Unit 2- Interactions in the Physical Environment

Why does Canada have the climate it does?

It all depends on the latitude, ocean currents, wind direction and air mass, elevation, relief and nearness to water. To explain this further, I will use the example of the Canadian Shield. When it comes to the latitude, some places are affected in a more extreme way than others. For example, Nunavut would be colder as it is closer to the North Pole. The Labrador currents, affect the region as it is a naturally cold current, making any areas that come in contact with it to be cooler. The air coming from the north move south making the Canadian Shield cool. But, in the summers and winters the jet streams cause the warm and air cool to separate, making the winters extremely cold and the summers extremely hot. Naturally, areas that have a higher elevation will be colder, as the temperature decreases as you travel higher. The Canadian Shield doesn't have much to do with relief, because this is related more to mountainous areas. The way the mountains work is on the windward side, it gets the wind and rain and acts as a block for the leeward side. resulting in mild temperatures on the windward side and dry temps on the leeward side. Since the St. Lawrence river passes through many parts of the Canadian Shield, it makes the region cooler in the warmer seasons, but warmer in the colder seasons.
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Canada's Physical Regions

The 6 regions and a little bit about each.

Canadian Shield

  • surrounds Hudson Bay, largest physical region

  • made up of hills, highlands, plateaus, lowlands, plains, and multiple rivers and lakes

  • spans a wide area from the prairies to Atlanta, resulting in a wide range of temperatures

  • mostly made up of mixed forests (pine, hemlock, birch)

  • main industries are mining, power production and forestry

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Cordillera

  • covers most of western Canada (British Columbia and Yukon Territories)

  • made up of mountains, plateaus, deep valleys and coastal islands

  • coastal temperatures warmer inland

  • winter can last up to 8 months

  • 2 main vegetation zones are the tundra and mixed forests

  • main industries are fishing, mining and forestry

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Interior Plains

  • majority of the prairies is flat land; the other part is filled with wide river valleys, hills, escarpments and low mountains

  • fairly mild summers and cold winters

  • precipitation occurs mostly in the summer, which may lead to droughts in the dryer seasons

  • mostly made of grasslands and partially made up of boreal forests

  • main industry is agriculture

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Arctic and Hudson Bay Lowlands

  • grounds are frozen most of the year

  • January and February are the coldest, but the temperature doesn't vary much from this

  • mixed, dense forests (white spruce and black spruce)

  • made up of series of islands and swampy plains/wetlands

  • Hudson Bay lowlands makes up 32 % of Canada

  • vegetation is tundra in the Arctic and mixed in the Hudson Bay

  • main industries are mining and fishing as well as fur trading

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Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands

  • mostly in Ontario

  • houses 50% of Canadians

  • very hot and humid and dry in summer, very cold winters

  • lakes cause a lot of precipitation

  • top resource in freshwater

  • made up coniferous and deciduous forests

  • main industries are manufacturing and farming

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Innuitian Mountains

  • northern part of Nunavut and Northwest Territories

  • rain shadow due to relief precipitation

  • not much wildlife or plant species

  • large areas covered in permafrost

  • the vegetation region is tundra (small, hard plants), not much can grow here

  • main industries are mining, fishing, fur trading, hunting as well as whaling (killing whales for meat and oil)

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How will climate change alter Canada’s physical environment?

I think that 20 years (when it comes to climate change), can make a large impact. When it comes to the physical regions that are covered in permafrost or frozen over most of the year. The steady increase in the temperature will affect these areas greatly, as they depend on the cold weather. With the change, the vegetation will also change which means there will be less tundra areas and more mixed, boreal and Cordilleran zones. Other risks that are involved in climate change, there will be extremely hot summers and extremely cold winters, there may be an increase in hurricanes. In addition, the West Nile virus has become more apparent, which means that with the climate change it may increase into high numbers and start to mutate. I think this because Ebola started to mutate after a couple of months of being recognized. This may also occur with the West Nile virus.
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Unit 3- Managing Canada's Resources and Industries

What will be Canada’s most important resource(s)?

Natural resources will be a large asset, because by 2035, there will be more breakthroughs pertaining to our development of natural resources. Even though oil will still be able to be used in 2035 and maybe coal, they won’t last forever. So, finding ways to use natural resources such as Solar Panels will be helpful as we know they won’t run out and will be reliable. In addition, natural resources are easier to obtain as they aren’t mined or extracted from the ground, they are all around us.

This is the Drake Solar Landing Community in Okotoks, Alberta.

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How will Canada manage these resources in a sustainable manner?

Coal and oil compared to solar and gas are quite different because the fossil fuels need to be extracted from the earth, while natural resources can be obtained by using different devices such as solar panels or wind mills. The natural resources are easier to sustain as they will never run out. To meet the basic human needs, the sun must always be there and the wind currents rely on the sun. This means that we don’t have to worry about sustaining the natural resources because they will always be there.

A wind farm in Magrath, Alberta.

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Who will be Canada’s trade partners?

I think that NAFTA will continue because Mexico and America have been strong trading partners for a while now. But, I don’t know if America and Canada will be able to withstand the tension that the Keystone XL Pipeline is causing. They both have different point of views on the matter, so I don’t know how it will turn out. Even though this may cause a rift between the 2 countries now, I think that since they rely on each other so much, that they will still stay trade partners. Also, I think that Canada will be switching over to natural resources, but if they still slightly depend on fossil fuels, they may need to partner with another country to get what they need. As our resources are slowly dwindling.
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What will be our most valuable resource & will we be managing resources properly?

I think that natural resources such as wind and solar will be our most valuable resource, and when it comes to managing them it will be a simpler task as well. With, natural resources, the only obstacle is finding a way to convert it into heat or electricity. Once that is found out we need to figure out how to distribute it evenly. These two factors are nothing compared to what we need to do for fossil fuels.

We can avoid these!

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Unit Four: Liveable Communities

Where will most Canadians be living in 2035?

As of right now, the most populated areas in Canada are Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta (highest populated to lowest in written order). I think that Canadians will continue to mainly populate these areas, but will spread out towards the colder areas as well, like Yukon Territories and Saskatchewan and Manitoba. These regions are naturally colder and I think that with the temperature increase, I think people may appreciate the cooler temperatures. Also, since these regions are less populated, there is more rural space, which means that people who are more used to open spaces are able to have that choice, but the urban option is always there because Canada is an urbanized country.

Will urban sprawl be an issue in 2035? How can Ontario limit urban sprawl by the year 2035?

Urban sprawl is increasing, so I think it will be more of a problem in areas of Canada where there is already a high concentration of urbanization. For example, Ontario keeps expanding in certain areas such as Toronto. There is an area named the GTA which is any cities outside of Toronto (In a certain vicinity). The GTA was made to separate Toronto from any suburb cities in contact, because it’s such a large area. Ontario should have a limit of how much construction is done each year, they may already do this, but Ontario is a large province and considering how much construction is done just in Mississauga and Toronto is a lot. By distributing the money only when necessary would be better so it’s not wasted on construction that is unnecessary.

How will Canadian cities become sustainable and green?

By converting from an oil and coal based community to a solar and wind energy community would help Canadian cities to become more sustainable. Solar panels can be put anywhere which will not cause any inconvenience when it comes to building them. On the other hand, wind turbines need a large area where multiple turbines are built, so all of the energy can be collected together. Promoting electrical cars would work as well because they don’t give off the emissions that regular cars do, helping the air stay clean.
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Leave a greener, more sustainable footprint :)