Battle of Gonzalas
When Domingo de Ugartechea , military commander in Texas, received word that the American colonists of Gonzales refused to surrender a small cannon that had been given that settlement in 1831 as a defense against the Indians, he dispatched Francisco de Castañeda and 100 dragoons to retrieve it. Ugartechea realized that, given the tensions between the Texans and Antonio López de Santa Anna's Centralist government, the slightest provocation might ignite hostilities.
Battle of San Jacinto
The battle of San Jacinto was the concluding military event of the Texas Revolution. On March 13, 1836, the revolutionary army at Gonzales began to retreat eastward. It crossed the Colorado River on March 17 and camped near present Columbus on March 20, recruiting and reinforcements having increased its size to 1,200 men. Sam Houston's scouts reported Mexican troops west of the Colorado to number 1,325. On March 25 the Texans learned of James W. Fannin's defeat at Goliad , and many of the men left the army to join their families on the Runaway Scrape. Sam Houston led his troops to San Felipe de Austin by March 28 and by March 30 to theJared E. Groce plantation on the Brazos River, where they camped and drilled for a fortnight. Ad interim President David G. Burnet ordered Houston to stop his retreat; Secretary of War Thomas J. Rusk urged him to take a more decisive course. Houston held a council of war with Edward Burleson, Sidney Sherman, Henry W. Millard, Alexander Somervell, Joseph L. Bennett, and Lysander Wells. Two of the officers suggested attacking the enemy in his position; the others favored waiting Santa Anna's attack. Houston withheld his own views at the council but later, after having formed his plan of battle had it approved by Rusk.
Battle of Velasco
The battle of Velasco, a prelude to the Texas Revolution and probably the first case of bloodshed in the relations between Texas and Mexico, took place on June 26, 1832. Henry Smith and John Austinqv, in charge of Texans who had gone to Brazoria to secure a cannon for use against the Mexican forces at Anahuac, opposed Domingo de Ugartechea, commander of the Mexican fort at Velasco, who tried to prevent the passage of the vessel carrying the cannon. The Texans numbered between 100 and 150; the number of Mexicans was variously estimated at 91 to 200. Ugartechea and his garrison were forced to surrender when their ammunition was exhausted. Sources differ about the number of casualties, but a conservative estimate suggests that Texan casualties were seven killed and fourteen wounded; three of the fourteen later died of their wounds. The Mexicans had five killed and sixteen wounded. Final terms allowed Ugartechea to surrender with the honors of war and return to Mexico aboard a ship furnished by the colonists. The final surrender took place in camp at the mouth of the Brazos on June 29, 1832, in the form of a document signed by Texas representatives William H. Wharton and William J. Russell, and Mexican representatives Juan Moret and José Rincón, with final approval by Ugartechea and John Austin.
Battle of Nacogdoches
The battle of Nacogdoches, sometimes called the opening gun of the Texas Revolution, occurred on August 2, 1832, when a group of Texas settlers defied an order by Col. José de las Piedras, commander of the Mexican Twelfth Permanent Battalion at Nacogdoches, to surrender their arms to him. Tensions had been building since the passage of the Law of April 6, 1830, which halted immigration from the United States to Texas. Manuel de Mier y Terán, commanding the northern provinces, had stationed garrisons and customs collectors in Texas to implement the 1830 law. The situation also reflected a clash of states'-righters in Texas against the Centralists in power in Mexico. The Texans found support (they thought) from Antonio López de Santa Anna, when he declared in 1832 against the Centralist regime. Piedras issued his inflammatory order after investigating a confrontation between local settlers and Mexican authorities at Anahuac. On the morning of August 3 James Carter and sixteen mounted men (including James Bowieqv) pursued the Mexican column, and at Buckshot Crossing on the Angelina River overtook them and began a running fight upriver toward Linwood Crossing. Here Piedras took refuge in the John M. Durst home (near what is now Douglas), where his men turned against him and Capt. Francisco Medina took command and surrendered Piedras and some 300 troops. The Texans escorted the Mexicans back to Nacogdoches. Asa M. Edwards took Piedras to San Felipe and turned him over to Stephen F. Austin. Piedras was given a parole and left for Mexico. James Bowie marched the Mexican garrison to San Antonio, where they were discharged. In the battle, Piedras lost forty-seven men killed and forty or more wounded. Three Texans were killed (a fourth died later) and four were wounded. The battle of Nacogdoches is an important lesser-known conflict that cleared East Texasqv of military rule and allowed the citizens to meet in convention without military intervention.
Battle of Concepion
The battle of Concepción occurred on October 28, 1835, the opening engagement in the siege of Bexar. After the skirmish at Gonzales on October 2, the Texas army under Stephen F. Austin grew to 400 men as it advanced on San Antonio. Gen. Martín Perfecto de Cos, with a Mexican army that peaked in size at 750 men in late October, fortified the plazas in San Antonio and the Alamo mission (San Antonio de Valero) across the river.Cos seized the opportunity to attack the separate force the next day, sending out Col. Domingo de Ugartechea with 275 men and two cannons before dawn. The 200 Mexican cavalry drove in the Texan guards in early morning fog and formed on the west side of the river. Lt. Col. José María Mendoza led the smaller infantry and artillery forces across the stream to attack from the east. Mexican volleys crashed through the trees overhead, but inflicted no casualties among the Texans until Bowie moved Coleman's company to meet the advance. Then one man fell mortally wounded. The Texans responded with accurate rifle fire that drove back three Mexican charges and killed or wounded most of the infantry and artillerymen in about thirty minutes.
THE BATTLE OF THE ALAMO (THE MOST HISTORICAL BATTLE OF TEXAS)
. The siege and the final assault on the Alamo in 1836 constitute the most celebrated military engagement in Texas history. The battle was conspicuous for the large number of illustrious personalities among its combatants. These included Tennessee congressman David Crockett, entrepreneur-adventurer James Bowie, and Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna. Although not nationally famous at the time, William Barret Travis achieved lasting distinction as commander at the Alamo. For many Americans and most Texans, the battle has become a symbol of patriotic sacrifice. Traditional popular depictions, including novels, stage plays, and motion pictures, emphasize legendary aspects that often obscure the historical event.