# Homework Design and Resources

## Overview of Topic

- Identify the trends in the design of homework in a middle school math classroom (grades 6 - 8)

- Identify the trends in the resources used by students to complete the homework in a middle school math classroom

## Research Questions

1. What types of homework are given in a middle school level math classroom?
2. What are the trends in the type of homework that is given in a middle school level math classroom?
3. What resources are needed for the student to complete the homework?
4. What are the trends in the resources students need to complete the homework?

## Literature Review Themes

1. Defining Homework and Identifying Shifts in Views --- homework is more than an assignment for students to complete at home. It offers additional learning opportunities for the students, and time for them to work individually to master skills or concepts. The view of homework has changed over time. When the United States felt as if the education standards needed to be tougher, homework became more essential for the learning process.

2. Purpose and Reason for Homework --- there are nine purposes teachers use to assign homework: practicing skills taught in class, preparation for the next lesson or completing unfinished work, participation, personal development, parent-teacher communication, parent-child relations, peer interactions, satisfying policy makers, and punishment.

3. Types of Homework --- there are four main categories for the type of homework assigned: review, practice, or drill the same-day content, elaborate or enrich material, review content from previous lessons, prepare students for content that would be covered in future lessons.

## Methods and Design

• Focus on numerical data
• Fixed reality - one concluding truth
• Establish universal truth, rule or explanation
• Neutral researcher - numbers speak for themselves

## Methodology - Quantitative

• Measurement - consistent measuring device, precise conclusion
• Generalization - sample of population of teachers and students
• Causality - strong casual inferences from internal reliability
• Replication - explicit methods to increase ability to repeat research

## Data collection Method - Survey

• Teacher survey - focus on design of homework, taken online in Google Form once in the beginning, and again at the end, sent through email
• Student survey - focus on resources used to complete homework, paper form like a checklist, completed at home with parent, or in school with teacher, collected at least twice a week for six weeks (one grading period)

## Hope to Learn

• Fill in gaps in previous research
• Teachers gain knowledge on trend in homework design and resources needed to students
• Parents will understand resources students need to complete math homework
• Know the common type of homework design and, if possible, suggest changes for future design of homework
• Know what students need most to complete math homework, and suggest ways for students to have access to these resources