Geography, Government, Economy, and Culture


The terrain in Mongolia is mostly vast semidesert, desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest. The Gobi Desert is located in the south-central area.Its natural resources are oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron. Its natural disasters are dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions. The climate is mostly desert; continental.


The government in Mongolia is a parliamentary one. Its president is Tsakhia Elbegdorj,  and its prime minister is Norov Altankhuyag. The legislative branch is called the State Great Hural. The judicial branch is called the Constitutional court. Their constitution was created on January 13, 1992. Their citizens are allowed to vote when they are eighteen.


The GDP per capita in Mongolia is $5,400. Its agricultural products are wheat, barley, vegetables, and forage crops. Its livestock are sheep, goats, cattle, camels, and horses. Its industries are construction and construction materials, mining (coal, copper,
molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold), oil, food and beverages, processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing. The industrial growth rate is 23%. Its import partners are China(43.4%), Russia (23.3%), South Korea (5.6%), Japan (5.1%), and the US (5%). Its export partners are China (85.7%) and Canada (6.3%). The percentage of its labor force that is agriculture, is 33.5%. Its percentage of industry labor force is 11.5%. Its services labor force percentage is 55%. The official currency of Mongolia is called the tögrög or tugrik.


The people of Mongolia are know as Mongolians. Their ethnic groups consist of Mongol (94.9%), Turkic (5%), and other (0.1%). The languages spoken are Khalkha Mongol, which is the official language, and Turkic. The religions in Mongolia are Buddhist Lamaist (50%), Shamanist and Christian (6%), Muslim (4%), and none (40%).